BORNH Bulletin of Regional Natural History http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/bornh <h1 style="text-align: center;"><strong>SOCIETA' DEI NATURALISTI IN NAPOLI</strong></h1> <p><strong><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/public/site/images/raf101/2.jpg" width="690" height="459"></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Bulletin of Regional Natural History (BORNH),</strong>&nbsp;formerly Bollettino della Società dei Naturalisti in Napoli, is an Italian on-line journal that promote in-depth studies in Natural Sciences at local and regional scale, to create management tools and spatial planning for conservation of diversity, in connections with other geographical areas and archives of biodiversity.<br><br><strong>BORNH</strong>&nbsp;seeks to publish of research articles, review articles, commentaries, check lists, technical papers on methodological innovations or improvements, as well as on the practical application of these resources towards the development of effective conservation policy and practice.<br><br><strong>BORNH</strong>&nbsp;publishes local and regional territory studies in all branches of Natural Sciences dealing with diversity, ecology and evolution of ecosystem: zoology, geology, mineralogy, ecology, paleontology, botany, systematics and phylogenetics, terrestrial and aquatic ecology and behaviour, parasitology, palaeontology, geomorfology, developmental biology, conservation biology, chemistry, applied studies.&nbsp;<br><br>Incoming manuscripts are initially evaluated by the Editor in Chief. If the manuscript is acceptable as corresponding to the scope of the journal and representing a major contribution deserving publication in an international journal, it will be forwarded to reviewers for evaluation. After the approval of the final version by the editorial board, the manuscript will be accepted for publication.&nbsp;<br><br>The editor reserves the right to make editorial changes. Authors agree, with the acceptance of the manuscript, that the copyright is transferred to the publisher. Manuscripts, proofs, reviews and other correspondence concerning editorial matters should be addressed to the Editorial Office</p> <h1 style="text-align: center;">Breve Storia della Società dei Naturalisti in Napoli</h1> <p style="text-align: justify;"><br>Nel 1881 la Facoltà di Scienze naturali, Chimica e Fisica dell’Università di Napoli contava soltanto 11 studenti. Si trattava però di ragazzi estremamente attivi e determinati, che si risolsero, su suggerimento ed aiuto di Salvatore Trinchese, loro professore di Anatomia Comparata, a fondare il Circolo degli Aspiranti Naturalisti. Il nome era un chiaro riferimento all’Accademia degli Aspiranti Naturalisti, fondata a Napoli nel 1841 da Oronzo Gabriele Costa, e poi sciolta nel 1849 per ragioni politiche. Il Circolo degli Aspiranti Naturalisti vide la sua nascita nei locali dell’Università di Napoli nel novembre del 1881, e gli undici studenti che coraggiosamente ne gettarono le fondamenta erano: Antonio Cabella, Alfonso Castriota Scanderberg, Tommaso Curatolo, Aurelio De Gasperis, Ludovico De Paola, Michele Geremicca, Giuseppe Jatta, Ugo Milone, Alfonso Montefusco, Pellegrino Severino ed Ulrico Siniscalchi. Il loro scopo era quello di superare le difficoltà in cui versava l’insegnamento delle Scienze Naturali. Le scarsità di strumenti scientifici nei laboratori, e di riviste scientifiche indispensabili per la loro preparazione culturale, unita all’inaccessibilità delle Accademie, allora esclusivi luoghi ai quali solo alcuni maestri potevano accedere, li spinsero ad organizzarsi: “riunirsi, manifestare le proprie idee con conversazioni critiche, tenere conferenze con dimostrazioni pratiche; raccogliere il frutto delle proprie ricerche, dei propri studi, dei vari convegni in un giornale che fosse la squilla della Nuova Italia risorta, ecco il nobile scopo, ecco la grande fatica degli undici giovani” (dalla relazione di Giuseppe Zirpolo sull’attività della Società nel 50° anniversario della Sua Fondazione. Bollettino della Società dei Naturalisti, 1932, vol. XLIV). Il nucleo fondatore del Circolo negli anni successivi cominciò ad svolgere una fruttuosa attività. Si aggiunsero nuovi soci, si stabilirono obiettivi da raggiungere, e nel 1885 nacque la Rivista Italiana di Scienze Naturali, con la prima nota a cura del professor Salvatore Trinchese, mentore della Rivista, come della Società nascente. Nel 1887 il Circolo si denominò Società dei Naturalisti in Napoli e anche il giornale cambiò nome, diventando il Bollettino della Società dei Naturalisti. In occasione del Cinquantenario della Società (1932) il vice segretario Arturo Palombi stimò che l’attività di ricerca del Bollettino avesse portato alla redazione di circa 900 lavori, in campi che spaziavano dalla fisica alla chimica ed alle numerose branche delle Scienze Naturali, con contributi di rilevanza internazionale. Il Bollettino sin dai suoi primi numeri veniva scambiato con le riviste edite dalle più importanti Accademie scientifiche del tempo, e questo contribuì da una lato ad una sua capillare diffusione su scala mondiale, e da un altro all’acquisizione di un elevato numero di periodici internazionali, che andarono a costituire il corpus fondamentale della biblioteca della Società dei Naturalisti. Per quanto riguarda le sede, la Società ebbe un periodo lungo di instabilità. Per circa trenta anni vennero messi a disposizione differenti locali nel centro storico della città, con continue peregrinazioni da un posto all’altro. Solo nel 1920 grazie all’attivo interessamento di alcuni dei soci, quali Maria Bakunin, Ferruccio Zambonini, Francesco Saverio Monticelli, il rettore dell’Università di Napoli professore Pasquale Del Pezzo concesse gli attuali locali di via Mezzocannone 8, che diventarono la sede definitiva della Società.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Domenico Fulgione it-IT BORNH Bulletin of Regional Natural History 0366-2047 The Checklist of Canterno lake. Update to December 2020 (Southern Latium) http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/bornh/article/view/8009 <p>This study was carried out in the Canterno lake (Lat 41° 45’10,9’’ N - Long 13° 15’ 1,5’’ E) in the 2018 – 2020 period. 133&nbsp;species (72 Non-Passerines - 54,5% - and 61 Passerines 46,2%)&nbsp;were recorded. 124 species are in the Red List of Italian&nbsp;breeding birds, 31 species are listed in Annex I of the Directive&nbsp;2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds. The data shows&nbsp;the presences of Ciconia nigra, Coracias garrulus, Clamator&nbsp;glandarius, Accipiter gentilis, Tadorna tadorna, Tadorna&nbsp;ferruginea and the regular migration of Pandion haliaetus,&nbsp;Hieraaetus pennatus, Falco vespertinus and Ficedula albicollis.&nbsp;41 species have a status of resident and breeding; 19 species&nbsp;are summer breeding visitors; 26 are migrant species; 16&nbsp;species are wintering. The data integrate the last published&nbsp;checklist (Roma &amp; Rossetti 1998) making a review of the waterbirds&nbsp;list. The list adopts the systematic classification and the&nbsp;italian common name of the recently check-list of birds of&nbsp;Latium (Brunelli et al., 2019).</p> Ermanno De Pisi Luigi Marozza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 1 3 1 21 10.6092/2724-4393/8009 Some considerations on the Pleistocenic Elephants of the Mediterranean islands http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/bornh/article/view/8038 <p>During the Pleistocene some Mediterranean islands were&nbsp;repeatedly colonized by species of elephants that evolved into&nbsp;endemic dwarf forms. The reason for such dwarfism is to be&nbsp;found among multifacet ecological adaptations. The key to&nbsp;understand the size reduction of the insular Pleistocenic&nbsp;elephants is to consider a plurality of evolutionary patterns,&nbsp;including island area, the limited natural resources, absence of&nbsp;genetic flow, the interaction with the other elements of the&nbsp;insular fauna, the type of habitat (niches) and the different&nbsp;geological periods in which the fossils were found.</p> Riccardo Ianniciello ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 1 3 1 6 10.6092/2724-4393/8038 Breeding sites of the Italian Green Toad, Bufotes balearicus (Boettger, 1880) in Naples (Italy) http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/bornh/article/view/8105 <p>Here we report the results of a longitudinal field study (2002&nbsp;-2018) aimed at monitoring the presence and the breeding&nbsp;activity of the Italian Green Toad, Bufotes balearicus, within the&nbsp;area of the administrative boundaries of Naples. We identified&nbsp;breeding sites in five sub-areas (Bagnoli – ex sito industriale,&nbsp;Mostra d'Oltremare, Parco del Poggio, Scalo Ferroviario-zona&nbsp;orientale, Parco Massimo Troisi), one of which (Parco M. Troisi)&nbsp;since 2018. Only in two subareas (Mostra d’Oltremare and&nbsp;Parco del Poggio) the reproductive activity took place&nbsp;regularly, almost every year, although the development of&nbsp;tadpoles was often compromised by a variety of&nbsp;anthropogenic disturbances. However, the major potential&nbsp;threat to the survival of this amphibian for the entire study area&nbsp;is represented by the isolation of its population mainly due to&nbsp;the scarcity of natural and semi-natural green areas in a highly&nbsp;urbanized territory.<br>We hope that our research will be helpful to plan&nbsp;management activity for this species in the urban area of&nbsp;Naples.</p> Fabio Guarino Marcello Mezzasalma Gaetano Odierna Orfeo Lucio Antonio Picariello Agnese Petraccioli Salvatore Viglietti: Nicola Maio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 1 3 1 13 10.6092/2724-4393/8105 Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis in poultry manure samples, treated with different concentrations of hydrated calcium hydroxide http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/bornh/article/view/8118 <p>The aim of the study was to verify the quality and&nbsp;microbiological safety of poultry manure, a completely natural&nbsp;fertilizer, composed of the manure of hens, poultry, and other&nbsp;birds. The evaluation of the quality and safety of poultry&nbsp;manure was performed following a bactericidal treatment,&nbsp;using different percentages of hydrated calcium hydroxide,&nbsp;inhibiting the growth, proliferation, and survival of bacterial&nbsp;species that can be pathogenic for humans. The evaluations&nbsp;were conducted spiking known concentrations of Salmonella&nbsp;spp., Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. Following the&nbsp;contamination, qualitative and quantitative analysis for the&nbsp;research of the above-mentioned pathogens were performed.&nbsp;In parallel, the variations of pH and humidity in the samples&nbsp;under examination were verified. The experiments consisted&nbsp;on adding different concentrations of hydrated calcium&nbsp;hydroxide, with a percentage ranging from 15% to 25%,&nbsp;followed by the qualitative and quantitative research of the&nbsp;pathogenic microorganisms spiked in increasing ten-fold&nbsp;concentrations (102, 103, 106 CFU/g). The total reduction of the&nbsp;microbial load in a period of time that varies from a few hours&nbsp;to a few days, depending on the microorganism under&nbsp;consideration, was observed.</p> Federica Carraturo Michela Morelli Marco Guida Marisa Di Santo Patrizia Ambrosino Teresa Crovella ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 1 3 1 14 10.6093/2724-4393/8118 Actual spreading and future evolution of alien population of Coypus (Myocastor coypus) in Campania region http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/bornh/article/view/8314 <p>This study has two main objectives: to define the presence of an&nbsp;alien species, the coypu (Myocastor coypus), in the Campania&nbsp;region and to develop a demographic projection in the absence&nbsp;of management plans. It was possible to highlight the areas in&nbsp;which the species is currently present on the territory and, once&nbsp;the biological and ecological aspects of it have been analysed,&nbsp;to observe whether favourable environmental conditions are&nbsp;present in the Campania region for its survival and proliferation.&nbsp;The results obtained from the environmental suitability model&nbsp;have effectively highlighted the presence of variables that can&nbsp;affect the survival of the species and that the synergy between&nbsp;these can lead to unexpected results. Therefore, to decipher the&nbsp;actual danger of the species it was necessary to develop a&nbsp;demographic projection to observe whether the latter may&nbsp;increase over time. The outcome highlighted an exponential&nbsp;increase in the population over time, thus highlighting the need&nbsp;to intervene in the short term to mitigate the negative impacts&nbsp;that the coypu already perpetuates on the environment.</p> Arianna Morena Belfiore Claudia Troiano Maria Buglione Simona Petrelli Gabriele De Filippo Domenico Fulgione ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 1 3 1 14 10.6093/2724-4393/8314 Death, sex, and immortality http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/bornh/article/view/8315 <p>DNA is intrinsically unstable due to spontaneous mutation and&nbsp;degradation. Yet, life has thrived for about four billion years,&nbsp;adapting to most diverse environmental conditions. The&nbsp;ultimate reason for the striking resilience and versatility of life is&nbsp;sex, here defined as any mechanism that recombines DNA from&nbsp;separate organisms. Sex is a universal property of life that&nbsp;originally emerged as a spontaneous by-product of the<br>machinery for gene duplication and repair. Sex counteracts&nbsp;genetic erosion (Muller’s ratchet), thus stabilizing biological&nbsp;information across time. Concurrently, sex builds novel genes&nbsp;and novel genomes, thus fostering genetic innovation and&nbsp;evolution. Bacterial sex is independent of reproduction,&nbsp;generally involves short DNA sequences, and encompasses a&nbsp;relatively high frequency of horizontal gene transfer between<br>distantly related taxa. Because of this, bacterial sex produces&nbsp;large pangenomes, fosters population ecological flexibility, and&nbsp;blurs species demarcation. Sex in eukaryotes is associated with&nbsp;reproduction and involves an alternance of cellular fusion and&nbsp;meiosis, each cycle setting whole-genome recombination.&nbsp;Sexual reproduction involves major additional costs relative to&nbsp;bacterial sex and is probably an ancestral trait of eukaryotes,&nbsp;but its origin is a matter of speculation. Sexual reproduction&nbsp;maintains sharp inter-species boundaries, prevents the&nbsp;development of pangenomes, and favours ecological<br>specialization. Except for gene transfer from endosymbionts,&nbsp;horizontal gene transfer has had a marginal role in genome evolution in eukaryotes.&nbsp;Eukaryotes lacking sexual reproduction might use a bacterial sort of sex as demonstrated for&nbsp;bdelloid rotifers. The soma of complex multicellular eukaryotes has three hierarchical levels of&nbsp;organization (systemic, organ and cellular) and three related states of death.</p> Roberto Ligrone ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 1 3 1 19 10.6093/2724-4393/8315 The Ornithological Collection of the Agricultural Sciences Museum housed in the Bourbon Palace of Portici (Italy) http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/bornh/article/view/8316 <p>The ornithological collection of the Agricultural Sciences&nbsp;Museum, hosted at the Department of Agricultural Sciences at&nbsp;the Bourbon Palace of Portici, was started in 1889. In 1920,&nbsp;under the direction of Filippo Silvestri, there was a notable&nbsp;increase in the number of specimens. This increase continued&nbsp;in the following years, until the collection reached around 400&nbsp;specimens in 1976. In the same year, Professors Domenico&nbsp;Scaramella and Luigi Filippo Russo published the first and, until&nbsp;now, only complete analysis of the single specimens,&nbsp;classifying them with the systematic criteria of the time. After 45&nbsp;years, the Agricultural Sciences Museum Direction felt it was&nbsp;appropriate to review the status of the collection, both to&nbsp;ascertain the presence of the specimens mentioned in&nbsp;previous works, and to verify the preservation status of such&nbsp;specimens. A species check-list was compiled, of the 437&nbsp;specimens found, belonging to 271 species, 70 families, and&nbsp;25 orders. It is worth noting the presence of some extinct&nbsp;species - Moloka’i Creeper (Paroreomyza flammea) and Leysan<br>Rail (Zapornia palmeri) – and probably extinct species: Ou&nbsp;(Psittirostra psittacea) and Slender–billed Curlew (Numenius&nbsp;tenuirostris).<br><br></p> Maurizio Fraissinet Claudio Labriola ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 1 3 1 17 10.6093/2724-4393/8316 Bulletin for the Year 1990: Meteorological Observatory of the University of Naples Federico II http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/bornh/article/view/8318 <p>This report contains the meteorological bulletin for the year&nbsp;1990. The data were measured at the Meteorological&nbsp;Observatory of the University of Naples Federico II located in&nbsp;Largo San Marcellino, 10, in the Historic Center of Naples.&nbsp;</p> <p>The weather report is organized as follows:<br>• a meteorological report for the year 1990;<br>• 12 monthly reports and annual trends with monthly averages;<br>• a cataloging of the average daily values and related graphs,&nbsp;for each month, with an indication of the extreme values&nbsp;recorded.</p> Nicola Scafetta Alessandro Gambardella Mauro Rea Raffaele Viola ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 1 3 1 49 10.6093/2724-4393/8318