Fuori Luogo. Rivista di Sociologia del Territorio, Turismo, Tecnologia 2024-02-08T11:42:59+00:00 Fabio Corbisiero (direttore) Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>double-blind peer review</em>&nbsp;Journal&nbsp;<strong>“</strong>Fuori Luogo<strong>”</strong>&nbsp;(Italian for “<em>Out of Place</em>”) – founded in 2016 and&nbsp;accredited as scientific journal by ANVUR – discusses and explores the logic and the paradoxes of the relationships occurring in the spaces, places and territories of the social experience. The Journal&nbsp;includes the critical perspective of sociology as a whole and discusses convergences and differences, compliances and non-compliances, appropriateness and inappropriateness of social actions, viewed in the light of the fundamental connection between human behavior and spatial context.</p> <p>Fuoriluogo is a sociological paradigm which demarcates distinction and difference within social phenomena and territorial contexts. For these reasons, the Journal mainly calls for studies and researches focused on contextualized social investigations.</p> Editorial 2024-02-08T11:42:43+00:00 Fabio Corbisiero 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Introduction 2024-02-08T11:42:42+00:00 Monica Bernardi Luca Bottini 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Beyond “Climate-Neutral and Smart Cities”: Reflections on Strategies and Governance Models 2024-02-08T11:42:54+00:00 Monica Bernardi Alberica Aquili <p>The paper reflects on the state of the art in the field of smart cities and climate change focusing on how cities can play a role in meeting the 2030 climate neutrality goal. It investigates the main streams of literature on cities’ visions (smart city, sharing city, self-sufficient city, 15-minuts city, circular city) and the climate-neutrality approach proposed by the European Commission through the EU mission on Climate-Neutral and Smart Cities. The mission has identified 100 European cities that will be engaged in a transition to climate neutrality by the end of 2030 as cities’ model to push other cities to work for meeting goals of decarbonization. The 9 Italian cities selected by the mission, as well as a city inspired by the mission itself, are presented with their programs and initiatives in order to highlight how they are replying to the main urban challenges in terms of services provisions. The emerging hypothesis is that, to provide services in a fair and just way reducing environmental impact, city should be understand as a commons. A co-city model based on a penta helix approach as those proposed by Foster and Iaione, is thus a strategic way to deal with the urban challenges also in a climate logic and would help cities to meet the EU goals by 2030.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Energy Transition and Climate Change in the Contemporary Urban Era. A Sociological Point of View 2024-02-08T11:42:52+00:00 Silvia Crivello <p>The aim of this work is to describe what urban sociology can offer in addressing one of the challenges perceived as most urgent for contemporary cities on a global level: the energy problem and its consequences referring to climate change. The issues relating to the energy transition have, in recent decades, acquired wide importance within a multitude of debates, both academic and political. The reflections on the energy question and climate change are characterized by a multitude of possible epistemologies, scientific approaches and methodological tools and the dialogue between these different voices is not always easy. If ecological and energy problems constitute a harsh reality, from a sociological point of view, it is very important to highlight the multiplicity and heterogeneity of the positions and arguments of experts, politicians, activists and other subjects. The interpretations of environmental problems are built by complex assemblages of material elements on the one hand, and by social constructions on the other. This study will focus on the energy transition in relation to the theories developed within urban sociology and urban studies. In particular, the energy-environmental question will be addressed considering its eminently urban dimension, its position in a socio-cultural scenario marked by the economic crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic, the multiplicity of possible epistemologies that can be used in the construction and interpretation of the problem, and the reflection on socio-energetic justice.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Climate Change and Social Inequalities: the Gap Between Climate Solutions & Environmental Justice 2024-02-08T11:42:51+00:00 Alessandra Terenzi <p>The Davos World Economic Forum (2023) confirmed that climate risks and social inequalities are two sides of the same crisis.</p> <p>Inequalities represent one of the greatest obstacles to sustainable urban regeneration in smart cities, for a real equitable future based on a neutral climate scenario. The last Oxfam report (2023<em>)</em> reveals that, for the first time in 25 years, extreme wealth and extreme poverty have increased simultaneously and 2020 is likely the year with the largest increase in poverty since World War II. The fight against inequalities therefore represents one of the main 17 objectives of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.</p> <p>At the same time, from various studies on the place and role of the <em>Anthropocene</em> (Pellizzoni, 2021) in today's crisis, it emerges that the human impact on the planet has never had such rapid times and such devastating consequences as in the last twenty years, where the impacts of climate change have reached historic highs. Nevertheless, the climate crisis caused by the richest 1% of the world's population produces devastating effects mainly on the poorest, who bear the least responsibility, while the Oxfam carbon budget (2023) is rapidly depleted just to allow a super-rich minority to consume more and more. Inequalities and climate change, therefore, feed each other.</p> <p>It is therefore unthinkable to believe that we can solve the climate crisis without acting directly on inequalities, since the benefits obtained on one side could be neutralized if we do not act on the other side at the same time.</p> <p>Climate change could also represent a multiplier of all kinds of existing inequalities, leading to the construction of new <em>environmental inequalities</em> caused by a form of <em>distributive injustice </em>of extreme weather events. According to such a&nbsp; specific form of injustice, that led some scholars to reflect about an intrinsically racist dimension of climate change (Williams, 2022), the worst effects of this environmental crisis always end up concentrating more violently on poor areas and more vulnerable groups, causing serious <em>direct</em> and <em>indirect</em> damages. Even the numerous "climate solutions" put in place by several governments for the ecological transition can turn into further causes of climate inequality and climate exclusion.</p> <p>Climate justice today therefore assume a central role in the process of ecological transition.</p> <p>This study proposes to apply a critical reflection of these theories, demonstrating the inseparable correlation between fragile areas/populations and the impacts of climate crises through the selection and analysis of some case studies referring to Genoa, an historically polycentric city, shaped by multiple centralities and peripheries. This also allowed to experiment on a local/urban scale some dynamics and theories generally projected on a global scale of reference, thus considering the profound differences within the same city, whose different cases have been analyzed on the basis of three dimensions used in order to classify different forms of distributive injustice: the temporal dimension, the social one and, finally, the territorial dimension (Pellizoni and Osti 2008).</p> <p>This research aims to demonstrate how the fight against social inequalities could represent a concrete opportunity to think about new theoretical paradigms in a neutral climate scenario towards an actual equitable ecological transition, opening up new possibilities for sustainable urban regeneration in smart cities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Contradictions of Platform Urbanism: the Role of Corporate Property Managers in the Vacation Rental Market of Milan 2024-02-08T11:42:55+00:00 Veronica Conte Guido Anselmi <p>Over the last decades, cities have been targeted by massive investments by technology corporations. This process, defined as the “urbanization of technology capital” (Sadowski 2020), has evolved, moving from the affirmation of the smart city paradigm to the urbanization of “platform capitalism” (Srnicek 2017) and sharing economy agendas. While the former was led by a number of big corporations providing new services to city governments, the latter are driven by a range of digital intermediaries (i.e. platforms) delivering consumer services (e.g. food, mobility, dwellings).&nbsp;</p> <p>Today, we see that both phenomena have a significant impact on the built environment and real estate dynamics, <span lang="EN-US">thereby </span>affecting the city in terms of access to basic services and housing. Hence, regardless of the initial claims that digital platforms are fair, sustainable and equitable, scholars are trying to move toward an understanding of the extent to which platforms <span lang="EN-US">create</span> a new marketplace, thus opening up new avenues for the circulation of capital and the extraction of rents for transnational capital.</p> <p>In order to assess whether digital platforms act as democratic and sustainable innovations or are simply another channel for capital accumulation<span lang="EN-US">, i</span>n this paper we <span lang="EN-US">present our work on Airbnb, global leader in the holiday rental market. We show that t</span>he platform, initially promoted within the framework of the sharing economy, over the years has created a new marketplace, turning&nbsp;holiday rentals into “another asset class” (van Loon and Aalbers 2017) for both individual and corporate investors.&nbsp;We analyze Milan, a secondary node in the network of transnational real estate capital which is rapidly globalizing leveraging <span lang="EN-US">sharing city agendas and </span>local tourism. We employ a mixed method strategy combining in-depth case study, digital ethnography and computational analysis.</p> <p><span lang="EN-US">We</span> show <span lang="EN-US">that the</span> holiday rental market mediated through Airbnb has led to a very unequal distribution of revenues and a strong concentration of earnings in the hands of a reduced number of corporate players<span lang="EN-US">. Through these exploratory results we seek </span>to contribute to the discussion on market regulation i<span lang="EN-US">n</span> context<span lang="EN-US">s</span> characterized by competitive growth agendas (Cox 1993), an increasing monopolistic power of tech/financial actors (Anselmi et al 2021)<span lang="EN-US">,</span> and the need to adopt more sustainable and just housing policies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Promotion of Sustainability Policy in the Urban Context: the Role of Industrial Companies 2024-02-08T11:42:48+00:00 Giulia Mura Francesco Aleotti Davide Diamantini <p>Many medium-sized Italian cities share the problem of having incorporated or having to integrate within the urban area relevant industrial components that influence both the overall quality of life and the environment in a strict sense.</p> <p>Sustainability perspectives are a relevant starting point for guiding companies’ development and growth strategies. At the same time, this aspect constitutes a strategic opportunity for urban development, that is still conditioned by the direct presence of companies that, in the best scenario, simply comply with current regulations in term of sustainability.</p> <p>The classic stakeholder theory, which is widely diffused in organizational culture, must be revised to solidify the understanding of the role of local stakeholders, who are passively involved in the environmental impact of companies’ activities. Studying the awareness, among the different corporate components, of environmental issues, is a very relevant step to trigger processes of effective improvement.</p> <p>In this article, we would like to argue that a greater understanding of sustainability issues on the part of decision-makers and employees of companies is a key that can have concrete effects on an aggregate level in the urban dimension.</p> <p>To verify this hypothesis, we propose a case study comparing three organisations, composed of ten plants spread across the Italian territory and all located in the proximity of medium-sized cities.</p> <p>Adopting a mixed qualitative-quantitative methodology, the work crosses primary qualitative data (semi-structured interviews with key players), quantitative data and secondary data relating to the territorial context. The results allow to highlight limits and potential of the industrial-urban coexistence, with a specific focus on the relation between private and public actors.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Future of Smart Cities and the Role of Neighborhoods in Influencing Sustainable Behaviors: a General Overview 2024-02-08T11:42:57+00:00 Luca Bottini <p>The neighborhood certainly constitutes the founding element of the entire urban fabric of a city. It is, so to speak, the smallest territorial component endowed with social autonomy and identity that can be recognized and identified in the city. Neighborhoods, in their specificity and different social, cultural and architectural characteristics, represent the propeller capable of fueling that energy that defines the multidimensional soul of a city. Social vitality, community participation and a good urban living environment are three factors which may boost residents’ virtuous practices, useful to improve the quality of life of resident populations. These practices not only reside in fostering collective actions aimed at supporting, for example, social cohesion, volunteerism, associations and behaviors in favor of social well-being, but we can also identify behaviors aimed at improving the environmental health of the urban context. More generally, we refer to so-called pro-environmental behaviors. In this contribution we aim to present the theoretical relationship that exists between three fundamental variables capable of triggering these phenomena: quality of the perceived urban environment, attachment and propensity for pro-environmental behaviors. In relation to this last variable, emphasis will be given on very relevant topic such as “circular behaviors” (i.e., reuse practices, smart use of resources). The relationship that links this phenomenon with the quality of neighborhoods and with place attachment will be described, as a process capable of mediating and influencing phenomena of attitudes aimed at environmental sustainability.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigating Urban Inequalities in a Climate Crisis Scenario: the Contribution of Big Data to Environmental Justice Studies 2024-02-08T11:42:49+00:00 Alessandra Landi Tommaso Rimondi <p>This paper moves from the idea that cities represent a central “battlefield” for today’s environmental challenges. Climate change, in particular, poses significative threats for urban landscapes and communities living in urban space. On the one hand, today’s challenges have significant continuities with classical urban issues: cities have always been space of conflicts, contradictions, inequalities. Environmental issues represent one of the many stressors of urban dynamics; conflicts on the locations of polluting sites, for example, have developed over the last fifty years, intertwined with segregation and discrimination processes. On the other hand, the central role of the environment in current policies, framed as “sustainability policies”, need a specific, renewed and stronger focus on urban inequalities, that can significantly benefit from new analytical tools, such as Big data.</p> <p>The first paragraph give a short perspective on environmental justice history and main topics, focusing in particular on its lasting interest for spatial inequalities and discrimination processes. The second paragraph underlines how, within the context of climate change, such perspective proves to be still useful, permitting to deepen our understandings of vulnerabilities and recovery processes in the aftermath of disasters, or resilience planning’s failures. The third and last paragraph illustrates how new analytical tools, such as Big Data or ecometrics, can be used to inform local policies and strengthen cooperation between activists, citizen, administrators and academics in tackling inequalities within the urban fabric.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Certifying Credibility: Trajectory of Sub-Saharan Asylum Seekers in Italy 2024-02-08T11:42:45+00:00 Ismail Oubad Khalid Mouna <p>"A ‘truthful’ protection seeker would initiate their story with “because” or “because of”, underlining the necessity and the urgency of their displacement, which may be linked to war, genocide, natural disaster… Unlike the so-called ‘truthful’ protection seeker, the use of “for” and “so” turns the subject into a suspect, leaving his country to improve his living conditions, live a new adventure and pursue self-realization, something not allowed to people from the Global South. Drawing on an ethnography with refugees and protection seekers in Italy (region of Veneto), testimonies were generated to look at the complex processes involved in certifying eligibility to legal protection. This paper underscores the conditions under which migrants (re)invent a new identity to meet the institutional expectations of the European humanitarian criteria for asylum-seekers."</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## “If It Happens Again I’m Leaving”: Suggestions for Risk Communication from a Field Study of Communities in Basilicata, Italy 2024-02-08T11:42:46+00:00 Rocco Scolozzi <p>Risk communication plays a crucial role in preparing for and managing disaster events as well as in building trust between citizens and institutions. Natural disasters can trigger processes of land abandonment or further weaken already fragile communities. The preparedness and resilience and adaptability of communities in the face of events such as landslides, floods, or earthquakes depend on a number of variables, such as: widespread perception of risks, reciprocity and trust between citizens and between citizens and institutions, available resources (human and material), and collective preparedness and application of functional behaviors.</p> <p>The objective of the research presented here, part of the MITIGO project, was to gather elements useful in defining communication and self-protection models that can increase community resilience. To gather elements regarding these processes, a questionnaire was defined and administered in four small municipalities in Basilicata. The questionnaire made it possible not only to find some answers to the research questions but also to ask new ones; for example, it made it possible to identify some crucial aspects, such as: the variability in the number of inhabitants actually in their municipality between holidays and working days and between different time slots, the different level of trust in the municipal administration and in institutions in general, and the different degree of knowledge of risks and behaviors to be implemented in case of emergency. Reciprocity among inhabitants also differed.</p> <p>Communities in fragile territories have recurring differences; these differences if recognized can guide more effective risk communication and community resilience support programs. After an overview of risk communication theories and models, some useful suggestions are presented for setting up risk communication projects specific to the explored communities and similar inland areas of Basilicata or mountain areas in general.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Aree Interne tra Deagrarizzazione e Riagrarizzazione: Giovani Agricoltori e Meccanismi di Ritorno all’ “Osso” in Centro Sardegna 2024-02-08T11:42:59+00:00 Francesca Uleri Benedetto Meloni Alessandra Piccoli Susanne Elsen <p>The presence and coexistence of deagrarianization and reagrarianization movements within Italian Inner Areas&nbsp; implies the adoption of keys to understanding their evolution that take into account both processes that generate the so-called "voids" (e.g. demographic decline,&nbsp; erosion of territorial capital, etc.) and processes of territorial resistance and renaissance.&nbsp; Accordingly, the paper explores the nature and peculiarities of both movements in Central Sardinia, specifically in the territories of Barbagia, Mandrolisai and Ogliastra. Empirically, it focuses on the mechanisms that characterize a young farmers’ back-to-the-land process by individuating the motivational aspects that determine the choices for starting an agricultural business for the first time or taking over an existing farm, and&nbsp; identifying the elements that place the action of the farm beyond its perimeter, in an articulated system in which the new agrarization is a pivotal element of a broad process of territorial regeneration and reconnection with urban areas.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Letture a 3T 2024-02-08T11:42:39+00:00 Francesco Calicchia Antonella Berritto Maria Camilla Fraudatario 2024-01-22T16:59:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Smart Cities, Green Urban Growth and Sustainable Development: a Socio-Cybernetic Reading in Conversation with Mark Deakin 2024-02-08T11:42:40+00:00 Senzio Sergio D'Agata 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##