Fuori Luogo. Rivista di Sociologia del Territorio, Turismo, Tecnologia http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo <p>The <em>double-blind peer review</em>&nbsp;Journal&nbsp;<strong>“</strong>Fuori Luogo<strong>”</strong>&nbsp;(Italian for “<em>Out of Place</em>”) – founded in 2016 and&nbsp;accredited as scientific journal by ANVUR – discusses and explores the logic and the paradoxes of the relationships occurring in the spaces, places and territories of the social experience. The Journal&nbsp;includes the critical perspective of sociology as a whole and discusses convergences and differences, compliances and non-compliances, appropriateness and inappropriateness of social actions, viewed in the light of the fundamental connection between human behavior and spatial context.</p> <p>Fuoriluogo is a sociological paradigm which demarcates distinction and difference within social phenomena and territorial contexts. For these reasons, the Journal mainly calls for studies and researches focused on contextualized social investigations.</p> FedOA - Federico II University Press en-US Fuori Luogo. Rivista di Sociologia del Territorio, Turismo, Tecnologia 2532-750X Global Risk and Social Distance at the Time of the Epidemic and Pandemic Events - Covid-19 http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7225 Anna Maria Zaccaria Sara Zizzari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 9 12 10.6092/2723-9608/7225 Epidemics and Pandemics: What Lessons from History? http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/6986 <p>Intrinsically linked to human existence, viruses have accompanied and marked the different stages of the development of civilization. Today, confronted with a new "enemy", the Covid-19, our societies seemed once again dumbfounded by this challenge before they reacted. This article will try to recall, through a historical approach, how much the great global epidemics and pandemics have shaped our world, and to show that often, from a societal point of view, the same stages are repeated.</p> Clairay Philippe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 13 18 10.6092/2723-9608/6986 Vulnerability and Sociology of Uncertainty http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7126 <p>The aim of this article is to argue about the transition from the risk society to the uncertainty society. In view of the fact that the pandemic from Covid 19 has shown that vulnerability could potentially become a permanent condition, it is appropriate to try to configure uncertainty by choosing a different epistemological key, capable, both to question some of the paradigms on which the organization of the current economic and social systems in industrialized countries insists and to define meanings usefull to build new models of global behavior.</p> <p>Without incurring the error of associating uncertainty with indeterminacy, the challenge inherent in the proposal of a sociology of uncertainty consists in a proof of refutability towards any kind of functionalist logic. Both with respect to analyzes supported by causal relationships and with reference to forms of cognitive rationality focused on the automatic absolutism of numbers, the sociology of uncertainty represents the heuristic bet in opposition to the determinism of any "simple" typology of rational thinking.</p> <p>Through the critical review of the dialectic within which risk sociology has elaborated most of its key concepts and suggested them to other disciplines, the sociology of uncertainty acquires an interesting interdisciplinary value. In addition to providing a meaningful and dynamic interpretation of reality, its interdisciplinary value is essential for assigning a specialized role to social research. Especially with regard to applied sociology, the issue of uncertainty allows to broaden the heuristic horizon and to combine sociology and economy to adopt an approach capable of keeping together the analysis of forms and processes of socialization with that of environmental problems and territorial, and to address the issue of the reduction of inequalities through solutions that guarantee the widening of participation and the increasing of deliberative practices.</p> <p>Upon a&nbsp; methodological approach&nbsp; based on much more awareness, the goal is the promotion of social learnig. This last is foundamental to allows sociology of uncertianty is the management of vulnerabilities in the view either of understanding and interpretation of social phenomena and of defining of local and global policies</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fiammetta Fanizza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 19 25 10.6092/2723-9608/7126 Emergency (Im)Mobilities. Insights from the Covid-19 Pandemic in Italy http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7125 <p class="Keywords"><span lang="EN-GB">The article presents an exploratory analysis of the (im)mobilities emerged during the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in Italy. The outbreak of Covid-19 and the resulting lockdown and social distancing measures have strongly affected urban societies on the move by precluding the movement for some ones and by generating a risky mobility for others or a movement without mobility. The authors focus on the role played by mobility regimes and the governance of emergency mobilities in influencing people’s motility and mobility. The aim is to point out the changes and inequalities caused by these emergency (im)mobilities and to gather insights that can be the basis for reflecting and planning about the urban mobility of the future. In the first section, the notions of mobilities, mobility regimes and emergency mobilities will be briefly reviewed in order to gather theoretical cues useful to orient the empirical exploration. In the second section, the main results of the empirical exploration will be presented. First, the attention is given to the changes in mobility behaviours during the pandemic. Then, the focus will be on the unevenness of (im)mobilities emerged during the pandemic period. Finally, on the basis of the results, the issue about the right to (im)mobility in the long-term and in diverse territories and cities will be discussed</span><span lang="EN-GB">.</span></p> Luca Daconto Simone Caiello Matteo Colleoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 27 35 10.6092/2723-9608/7125 The Role of the Local Police in Containing the Epidemiological Emergency http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7045 <p>The study proposes an analysis of the role of local police in ensuring the implementation of containment&nbsp;and contrasting measures for the Covid-19 health emergency. Emphasizing how the exclusion&nbsp;from the list of police forces contained in Law 1 April 1981, n. 121, "Nuovo ordinamento&nbsp;dell'Amministrazione della pubblica sicurezza", continue to involve operational uncertainties and&nbsp;require continuous regulatory clarifications, even in situations of maximum urgency such as the&nbsp;pandemiological one.</p> David Ferrante ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 37 39 10.6092/2723-9608/7045 Addressing the Covid-19 Pandemic: Chronicles from the Pastures http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7106 <p><span lang="EN-GB">What logic and practices adopted by shepherds can we learn to deal with the uncertainty caused by the Coronavirus pandemic? For shepherds, uncertainty did not begin with Covid-19, it is part of everyday life. Severe droughts, floods, animal diseases, a sudden collapse in prices, a rise in the price of feed or diesel fuel. Pastoralism, a semi-extensive livestock farming system, is a production system forced to adapt every day to the variables of difficult ecosystems. Several examples of practices that have always been used as resilience mechanisms include strategies such as self-production, sales through local and regional networks, collaborative work, investments in a contingent future etc. But with the modernization and rationalization of the sector, these practices have been discouraged or even become illegal, increasing the costs for farms and disadvantaging above all small production in favour of a food system mainly focused on international exports. It is precisely small-scale production that paid the highest costs during the global pandemic that reached its peak in March 2020. In this article the authors retrace some chronicles of Sardinian shepherds during the Covid-19, underlining how they, already accustomed to living with uncertainty, have faced this new global challenge and highlighting what can be learned from shepherds, experts in managing uncertainty. </span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Domenica Farinella Giulia Simula ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 41 51 10.6092/2723-9608/7106 Dreaming of Remoteness, Coping with Emptiness in Post-Lockdown (Under)Tourism Scenarios for the Inner Areas of Southern Italy: a Fieldwork Based Reflection http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7124 <p>From the end of 1970s and the neo-liberal shift in world politics and economics, inner areas of Italy have faced an apparently endless crisis. However, the sudden outbreak of the Covid-19 crisis could provoke an unexpected U-turn. Nowadays, the physical and social remoteness of inner areas work as an attraction for people in search for authentic experiences in food, nature and cultural heritage, outside the standard tourist offer and within the framework of “under-tourism”. However, the “imagined remoteness” that drives the public and academic conversation towards the tourist seduction of the inner areas could be misleading for the simple fact that it is “imagined”. Not many people know what it means to live in a remote area, where social and physical distances are huge and the basic services scarce. Thus, the success of post-lockdown tourism strategies centered on inner areas would depend on the positive matching between the needs of the “new” tourism business and the ones of “new” destinations. In this article, we propose a possible interpretation of the above-mentioned challenge, based on the elaboration of data collected during a three-month field work conducted in several small towns of the Basilicata and Calabria regions (Piccole Dolomiti Lucane Regional Park and the Pollino National Park). Our analysis aims to give a more realistic picture of the notions of emptiness and remoteness by assessing the degree of compatibility and the semantic distance between the expectation of the tourism business and the needs of the inner areas.</p> Emilio Cocco Anna Farrell Mines Rita Salvatore ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 53 68 10.6092/2723-9608/7124 Supporting Tourism: How Covid-19 will Affect Travel in the Future http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7177 <p>The new Coronavirus (COVID-19) is challenging the world. Without warning, without vaccine and without sufficient medical and health capacity to cope with the pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions, especially those of social distancing and quarantine, are the main strategy to contain the spread of the virus. Global mobility restrictions and the cancellation of all tourism-related activities are causing the most serious disruption of the global economy since World War II. The COVID19 pandemic has surprised the tourism industry, more than the terrorist attacks, earthquakes, tsunamis or social and financial disasters of the last decade have done in the last twenty years. With international travel bans affecting over 90% of the world's population and widespread restrictions on gregarious relationships, tourism has largely ceased since March 2020. To date, statistical data on the impacts of canceling hotel reservations, air travel, cruises and the food and wine chain are devastating. Although highly uncertain, the first projections from the World Tourism Organization for this year 2020 suggest that international arrivals could decrease by 20-35% compared to 2019. Particularly susceptible to measures to counter the Coronavirus pandemic due to reduced mobility and of social distancing, contemporary tourism is under the interpretative lens of sociology, especially in terms of the future. Forecast analysis scholars (Barlow <em>et al.</em>, 2016) emphasize the role of "anthropogenic" disasters in the future of tourism, characterized by human interference with the natural environment, from deforestation to the conversion of the remaining natural habitat (Lade <em>et al .,</em> 2020). In particular, climate change also exacerbates the risk of outbreaks of pathogens, as climate change will lead to human migration and diasporas, for example due to events of advanced drought, floods, fires (VSF, 2018). This forecasting framework obliges us to rethink forms of spatial adaptation of tourist flows that concern not only mobility, but also the relationship between the tourist community and the host community. The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to lead to a critical reconsideration of the global volume growth pattern for tourism, for reasons related to the risks involved in global travel and the tourism industry's contribution to global pollution, climate change, and more in general, to the socio-cultural instability of certain geographical areas of the world. This abstract proposes a reflection on the theme of the future of tourism by comparing, through forecasting analysis, the impacts of COVID-19 with previous epidemics and other types of social disasters and illustrating how the pandemic will change global tourism. The focus of the paper will be on how and why it is necessary to question the tourism model of growth in the volume of flows supported by UNWTO, ICAO, CLIA, WTTC and other world tourism organizations, limiting the tourist carrying capacity of the territories and providing tourism "on demand".</p> Fabio Corbisiero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 69 79 10.6092/2723-9608/7177 The Digital Communication Strategies of Regional DMOs at the Time of Covid-19 http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7123 <p>In a highly competitive arena such as the tourism industry, the creation and management of a distinctive and attractive destination image and a communication strategy are fundamental. Destinations with a strong and positive image have the greatest chance of being chosen by tourists in the purchasing process (Goodrich 1978; Woodside, Lysonsky 1989). Regarding the Destination Management Organization (DMO), several difficulties must be considered for the realization of a communication strategy: the heterogeneity of tourism products, the fragmentation of tourism system, different aims of tourism actors. Tourism destination management aims at integrating the characteristics of a territory analysis, the existing supply, the potential of the tourism system and developing a programmatic strategy and synergistic action of all operators in the sector.</p> <p>For the development of a territory, the coordinated and integrated action of the DMO is essential to implement a effective tourism strategy. The crisis triggered by the current pandemic has represented, in some cases, an opportunity to accelerate the evolutionary process towards the concept of DM&amp;MO (destination management and marketing organization). Compared to the past, DMOs must formulate concrete answers to face the emergency through broader actions and integrated system approaches that include different areas of intervention at governance level (McKercher, 2020). It is therefore necessary for DMOs to reconfigure themselves as a destination developer, facilitating the processes of development and defense of the territory competitiveness (Sainaghi, 2005).</p> <p>The paper analyzes the main actions implemented by regional DMOs to counter the negative effects of the Covid 19 pandemic. The spread of the virus worldwide has had a shock effect on almost all economic sectors and, in particular, on tourism which needs travel and interaction between people, two conditions denied by many national authorities to safeguard the health of citizens. However, this phase of "tourist immobility" can be seen, from DMOs point of view, as an opportunity to rethink tourism strategies, offering training and reflection opportunities to touristic operators, consolidating user loyalty and prepare the relaunch of their supply. The goal of the study is to analyze the actions implemented by the DMOs of the Italian regions during the pandemic period, verifying and classifying the actions and strategies put in place to react to this moment of serious crisis of the tourism sector.</p> Marcella De Filippo Angelo Bencivenga Delio Colangelo Angela Pepe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 81 87 10.6092/2723-9608/7123 Fake news in the days of COVID-19. The use of fact-checking to counter the epidemic of misinformation http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7019 <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en" tabindex="-1"><span class="" title="">The phenomenon of fake news, although it has expanded since 2004 in conjunction with the entry into the era of web 2.0, has always existed.</span> <span class="" title="">If on the one hand the internet has favored freedom of expression by allowing anyone to make their voice heard, on the other hand, in a context characterized by an excessive profusion of information, the web has led to the loss of credibility and legitimacy of knowledge.</span> <span class="" title="">experts (Martucci 2018).</span> <span class="" title="">In fact, the measurement of the reliability of the information is no longer based on the authoritativeness of the source and its scientific nature, but on the number of likes and shares on virtual platforms and therefore on the virality of the news (ibidem).</span></span></p> Antonio Russo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 89 95 10.6092/2723-9608/7019 Media Habits and Covid-19. Using Audio-Diaries Technique to Explore “Official” Information Consumption http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7043 <p>Through this article we aimed to investigate how individuals selected, consumed, interpreted and absorbed media content during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy, more specifically, the transition from phase 1 to phase 2. We assumed that being familiar with a condition, by getting information from media, might influence individuals' risk perception and predict how certain circumstances might affect their lives. Regarding the methodology, we used two complementary techniques: audio diaries and semi-structured interviews. The data collection was carried out during the first days of phase 2 (which started on May 4th 2020) and each participant – 11 female and 6 male, between 28 and 45 years old and living in the northern part of Italy – was asked to register one audio per day for a week (7-13 May). Using this technique proved to be fruitful as we received detailed descriptions of the lives of certain individuals during a period of uncertainty: their hopes, desires, fears, emotions alongside precise observations on their media diet, role of experts, data abundance and risk perception. This study intends to bear testimony to a period which disrupted as Giddens called it, the biographical continuity of people. As it tried to show, that media-diet in this period was also responsible for such a disruption.</p> Veronica Moretti Anwesha Chakraborty ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 97 104 10.6092/2723-9608/7043 From a Biological Entity to a Social Monster. A Semiotic Construction of the Coronavirus During the Covid-19 Pandemic http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7041 <div>During the first half of 2020, the novel coronavirus – a biological entity invisible to the human eye – was represented in multiple images, audiovisual products, descriptions, narratives and other modes of visual and verbal articulation. Many of these were developed by international organizations, governments and media outlets, amongst other social actors, with the aim of rendering the threat posed by the virus more tangible. At the same time, these representations also helped shape how people made sense of it in cognitive and emotional terms. Assuming that social reality is constructed in multiple and dynamic processes and interactions that imply the production, distribution and consumption of meaning at various levels, this article examines from a semiotic perspective one of the modes of representations of the coronavirus during the COVID-19 pandemic: the one grounded on the overarching narrative that depicted the virus as an evil enemy that poses a threat to humanity and that, consequently, needs to be fought. The article organizes the study of a number of representations of the coronavirus in three levels – the iconic, the axiological and the narrative – and discusses how the discursive construction of an enemy involves a series of mechanisms of semiotic nature that, besides somehow representing it, also shape its social construction.&nbsp;</div> Sebastián Moreno Barreneche ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 105 115 10.6092/2723-9608/7041 New Technologies and Tourism Mobility http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/6989 <p>The current society can be defined as a "traveling society", characterized, that is, by a territorial&nbsp;mobility that has reached decidedly relevant characters and dimensions, so much so that some&nbsp;social scientists propose the study of territorial mobility (new mobility paradigm) as a conceptual&nbsp;reference model for the understanding of contemporary society and for the analysis of the&nbsp;continuous transformations that characterize contemporary culture, reserving an important role&nbsp;for tourist mobility. However, what is most striking today is not only the considerable amount of&nbsp;people moving around the planet Earth, but also the ease and speed with which even larger&nbsp;numbers of people create "virtual experiences" of travel and living every day. In fact, the current&nbsp;technologies through which, perennially interconnected, we inform and communicate with&nbsp;others, make it possible, and at a relatively low cost, to connect in real time between people from&nbsp;all areas of the world and with any place where it is present. a webcam.</p> <p>In this work, in addition to describing the role played by new technologies in post-modern&nbsp;tourism, we will propose a reflection on the role played by the development of virtual mobility&nbsp;on the de-localization and de-territorialization of the processes of formation of the sense of&nbsp;spatial thunderstorm.</p> Antonella Perri Tullio Romita ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 117 123 10.6092/2723-9608/6989 Local society matters. La società diffusa negli studi di Gian-Luigi Bulsei http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7138 Enrico Ercole ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 125 126 10.6092/2723-9608/7138 Incontro Fuori Luogo. Interview with Derrick de Kerckhove http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/7285 <p>In this issue, for the “Fuori Luogo” interview, we interviewed Derrick Claude Frederic de Kerckhove, a Canadian naturalized Belgian sociologist, one of the leading experts in digital culture in the international arena. Considered the scientific heir to Marshall McLuhan - with whom he worked for over ten years as a translator, assistant and co-author - de Kerckhove directed the McLuhan Program in Culture &amp; Technology at the University of Toronto from 1983 to 2008 and most recently was awarded the prestigious The Medium and the Light Award 2020 for his constant commitment to disseminating the thought of the Canadian master. In his long career, Derrick de Kerckhove has provided new interpretations of McLuhan's studies in light of the changes introduced by digital technologies, contributing in particular to the development of techno-psychology, a research field that investigates the connections between technology, language and the human mind. Starting from this approach, de Kerckhove studied the interactive relationships between cultural artifacts and the human body, the concepts and uses of time, space and the self, the impact of new technologies on personal and social psychology, new artistic forms born on a global scale, the processes of formation of knowledge and knowledge on the Net, the new educational and learning scenarios. In Italy, de Kerckhove was a lecturer in "Sociology of digital culture" and "Marketing and new media" at the Department of Social Sciences of the Federico II University of Naples and currently teaches "Anthropology of Communication" at the Milan Polytechnic. Since 2009 he has been scientific director of Media Duemila magazine and of the TuttiMedia Observatory. Among his works translated into Italian are worth mentioning <em>Brainframes: mente, tecnologia, mercato</em> (1993), <em>La civilizzazione video-cristiana</em> (1995), <em>La pelle della cultura: un’indagine sulla nuova realtà elettronica</em> (1996), <em>Intelligenza connettiva</em> (1997), <em>L’architettura dell’intelligenza</em> (2001), <em>Il sapere digitale</em> (con A. Buffardi, 2011); <em>Psicotecnologie connettive&nbsp;</em>(2014), <em>La rete ci renderà stupidi?</em> (2016), <em>Oltre Orwell. Il gemello digitale</em> (con M.P. Rossignaud, 2020).</p> Rosanna Marino ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-23 2020-09-23 7 1 129 133 10.6092/2723-9608/7285