Fuori Luogo Journal of Sociology of Territory, Tourism, Technology http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo <p>The <em>double-blind peer review</em>&nbsp;Journal&nbsp;<strong>“</strong>Fuori Luogo<strong>”</strong>&nbsp;(Italian for “<em>Out of Place</em>”) – founded in 2016 and&nbsp;accredited as scientific journal by ANVUR – discusses and explores the logic and the paradoxes of the relationships occurring in the spaces, places and territories of the social experience. The Journal&nbsp;includes the critical perspective of sociology as a whole and discusses convergences and differences, compliances and non-compliances, appropriateness and inappropriateness of social actions, viewed in the light of the fundamental connection between human behavior and spatial context.</p> <p>Fuoriluogo is a sociological paradigm which demarcates distinction and difference within social phenomena and territorial contexts. For these reasons, the Journal mainly calls for studies and researches focused on contextualized social investigations.</p> FedOA - Federico II University Press en-US Fuori Luogo Journal of Sociology of Territory, Tourism, Technology 2532-750X Editorial http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/10944 Fabio Corbisiero ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 16 3 9 10 10.6093/2723-9608/10944 Intersectionality and Sociology: Theories and Methodologies Applied to Studies of Gender and Sexuality in Italy. Dilemmas and Perspectives http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/10763 <p>The attention of the social sciences in Italy to intersectionality has only gained significant prominence in recent years when models applied to European policies were used to define policies and reform plans. In the meantime, research, especially in the social sphere, has made greater use of the literature produced over more than four decades by the North American transdisciplinary community, which in Italy was already known only to a very few, albeit unheard of, scholars. This monographic issue attempts to describe the introduction of the intersectional perspective in the Italian social and cultural context through some of the essays presented at a conference organised by the Gender Studies Section of the National Association of Sociology. The aim of that event was to reflect on the dilemmas and perspectives of intersectionality from a sociological point of view in the light of its theoretical and methodological application in gender studies in Italy, bearing in mind that the Italian scientific community has practically not experienced the long phases of maturation and institutionalisation that took place overseas. The essays in this issue pragmatically use intersectionality by applying it to different case studies - from gender violence to disability and maternity, up to families in conditions of economic deprivation - responding with the analysis of the Italian context to dilemmas and perspectives of intersectional studies on which the debate is now open among North American and international scientists.</p> Silvia Fornari Mariella Nocenzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 16 3 11 23 10.6093/2723-9608/10763 Mapping Safety through an Intersectional Perspective. The Case of Wher http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/9446 <p>This contribution aims at critiquing the hegemonic discourse and urban policies on women's safety in the Italian context. Adopting the intersectional approach (Collins &amp; Guo 2021, Anthias 2013) allows for highlighting how processes of racialisation and gender structure the conceptualisation of security in urban space. In recent years, several policies have focused on urban security as a criterion to be pursued in city governance and at the same time the adoption of gender mainstreaming policies to improve the relationship between women and the city. However, security policies have been translated into an emergency and securitarian approach, homogenising different phenomena such as immigration and male violence against women. The discourse that emerges is not only marked by the link between racism and sexism but also makes male violence against women a public order issue and women a homogeneous group without considering the intertwining of gender with other categories.&nbsp;</p> <p>Through the case study of a women's safety app, "Wher, the representation of safety and how this conditions everyday practices will be analysed. The app is based on user comments and aims to suggest the safest ways for women and the creation of a user community. Referring to the literature on safety and gender (Valentine 1989, Koskela) 2002), the attempt will be to show which dynamics emerge and to whom these measures are addressed. Finally, as the literature has increasingly recognised the interactive nature of public and private spaces, I propose to adopt social reproduction as an approach to enable critical discourse on women's ideas of safety, how safety and danger are produced in different ways, in different places and at different scales, as experienced and understood by women themselves in their everyday lives.</p> Alina Dambrosio Clementelli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 16 3 25 35 10.6093/2723-9608/9446 Symbolic Violence against Women as a Social and Cultural System http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/9471 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The focus of this article is the system culture and society have availed themselves of down through the ages to enact symbolic violence against women. It dwells, in particular, upon the strategies implemented to exclude women from the grand course of mainstream history, from the canon of the various academic disciplines and reference books, as well as from the arts. It discusses how the schools and academia have failed to remember and cite women in textbooks, because of their presumed fragility and the roles as wives and mothers that patriarchal culture imposed upon them for millennia, strong traces of which survive even today in the culture and mindset of western civilisation, in contemporary storytelling and the media in particular. Furthermore, symbolic violence has always favoured and continues to legitimise physical abuse of women and girls.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The article also addresses the issue of females not only as the subject of mythology, literature and the arts, but also as sources of proactive thinking, innovation and creativity, something which modern historiography has frequently chosen to ignore.</p> Monica Gammaitoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 16 3 37 49 10.6093/2723-9608/9471 Childlessness and Disability. An Intersectional Analysis on Access to Motherhood for Women with Disabilities in Italy http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/9476 <p>The aim of this contribution is to explore, through the feminist perspective on disability (Thomas, 1997; Wendell, 1996; Garland-Thomson, 2004; Morris, 1991; 2004), the way in which disabled women reflect and narrate about (not) becoming mothers and the mechanisms of 'maintaining' childlessness. For this purpose, 18 biographical-narrative interviews were conducted in the period between May 2020 and September 2021 with a group of women with visible/invisible motor disabilities, both mothers and non-mothers, and aged between 20-50 years living in the city of Turin. The contribution is part of a PhD project on reproductive trajectories and narratives of embodied motherhood in dis-abled bodies. While the issue of parenthood for disabled people has begun to be investigated in international social research in recent years (Malacrida, 2009; Frederick, 2017), the processes of constructing meanings related to childlessness have not, until now, been the subject of in-depth research interest. By looking at the tensions between their biographical positioning, social norms about who (and if) should become a parent, and the embedded effects of disability (Thomas, 1997), it is possible to demonstrate how their childlessness status challenges the prevailing common-sense perception that views the experience of childlessness as an obvious and natural state characterised by lack of agency (Thomas, 1997). On the other hand, the variability of these different 'childless biographies' allows us to understand the social mechanisms of childlessness maintenance behind the state of childlessness, such as stigma, misrecognition, silence and desexualisation and socialisation to gender roles. These findings are relevant as they allow not only to move beyond a mainstream approach on childlessness, but to detect the intersectionality of struggles between Reproductive Justice (Ross and Salinger, 2017) and the Independent Living Movement (Morris, 2004).</p> Ester Micalizzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 16 3 51 61 10.6093/2723-9608/9476 Intersecting injustices: understanding oppression and privilege through the perspectives of parents facing poverty http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/9399 <p style="font-weight: 400;">This study contributes to the analysis of intersecting forms of oppression impacting on the daily life of parents facing poverty, valuing their expert knowledge. The research involved forty parents, living in different Italian regions, and known to public or third sector services. Findings highlight how forms of structural, political and epistemic oppression intersect in constructing processes of social vulnerability, which systematically limit the opportunities and initiatives of these parents. The reflections shared by participants also point to possible directions to break out of the “cage of oppression”, affirming different perspectives and discourses that value mutual recognition, reciprocity, while assuming a relational representation of autonomy. Parents’ perspectives are useful to guide the formulation of anti-poverty policies and interventions, oriented by an intersectional lens.</p> Mara Sanfelici ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 16 3 63 74 10.6093/2723-9608/9399 Intersectional Approach within Italian Antiviolence Centres. Challenges for Research and Policies http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/9511 <p>The debate on intersectionality is crucial for critical sociology, as it aims at studying identities and social constructions, as well at analysing complexities of social structures.</p> <p>This article offers a reading of the international debate on the use of an intersectional approach in research on male violence against women (VAW), challenging, first, the dualist interpretative approach based on the difference between women and men. Then, it focuses on the results of studies focused on multiple vulnerabilities suffered by women, in order to contribute to the current Italian debate on anti-violence policies and interventions, specifically in relation to the different practices and models of care enacted to support the women in situations of violence.</p> <p>The empirical part of the article discuss some of the representations of “women in situations of violence” and “women who access services” shared by antiviolences centres’ (avc) and shelters’ workers and activists in Italy, collected in a qualitative research in 2019-20. At the same time, the article discusses some quantitative results on avcs’ training and professional practices on the intervention with women that embodies multiple vulnerabilities.</p> <p>The article refers to the constructions of representations that result from the dynamic intersections between multiple hierarchies. At the same time, it questions the relational dimension that is at the heart of the debate on intersectionalityand its potentiality in research activities. The aim is to contribute to the scientific debate on intersectionality as theoretical and empirical tool, useful to avoid the unconscious reproduction of inequalities and privileges during the research activities as well as in the professional practices, through a reflexive approach on the categories employed and one’s own positionality in a specific social context.</p> Angela Maria Toffanin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 16 3 75 88 10.6093/2723-9608/9511 Gender and Age. The Myth of Eternal youth in Advertising http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/9468 <p>As already observed in the 1970s by Simone de Beauvoir (<em>La veillesse</em>), it seems that the desire to appear younger&nbsp;than one’s age&nbsp;has become in&nbsp;contemporary society&nbsp;an actual “social duty” that needs to&nbsp;be fulfilled with&nbsp;the utmost commitment.&nbsp; This appears to be more important&nbsp;for women than for men.&nbsp;Therefore, the&nbsp;intersection of ageism and sexism can produce discrimination’s multiple forms, such as attaching a stigma&nbsp;to&nbsp;older women.</p> <p>This phenomenon can be studied through advertising,&nbsp;on the assumption&nbsp;that it is a reliable source of social values. In fact,&nbsp;in order to promote&nbsp;a product, advertisers&nbsp;propose easily recognizable values (such as youthfulness)&nbsp;relying also on a set of&nbsp;implicit&nbsp;values.</p> <p>Consumers may not perceive the latter; however, they are&nbsp; influenced by them, because they&nbsp;reflect&nbsp;assumptions&nbsp;assimilated since their&nbsp;primary socialization.&nbsp;Identifying&nbsp;those&nbsp;hidden values helps to&nbsp;critically consider stereotypes and imposed patterns.</p> <p>&nbsp;A&nbsp;<em>corpus</em>&nbsp;of documents on the fight against ageing,&nbsp;was examined&nbsp;for&nbsp;this research.&nbsp;The material consists&nbsp;of over 400 advertising images that appeared in weekly&nbsp;Italian&nbsp;magazines and some&nbsp;TV&nbsp;commercials broadcast&nbsp;by Italian and&nbsp;American&nbsp;networks.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>An intersectional approach and qualitative techniques of document analysis have been used, according to the principles of ethnographic content analysis (ECA) proposed by Altheide (1996).</p> <p>One&nbsp;general result is that the promotion of&nbsp;products&nbsp;that&nbsp;embody&nbsp;the manifest value of the&nbsp;aspiration to appear&nbsp;always&nbsp;young&nbsp;is mostly&nbsp;encapsulated&nbsp;in&nbsp;a few&nbsp;“definitions of the situation” (Thomas, 1931).&nbsp;These values&nbsp;–&nbsp;felt as familiar,&nbsp;reassuring and authoritative&nbsp;–&nbsp;convey the advertised&nbsp;message and induce people to buy the&nbsp;product. Some examples are:&nbsp;the&nbsp;uncritical faith&nbsp;in numbers; science and technology;&nbsp;the need to return to nature;&nbsp;the prestige deriving from exclusivity;&nbsp;the&nbsp;importance of rituals.</p> <p>Regarding the intersection between gender and age, the analysis highlights some gender-differentiated stereotypes and&nbsp;behaviour patterns. For example, the exclusion of sexuality in the life of women in old age,&nbsp;but not&nbsp;in that of men; or&nbsp;the fact that a woman’s&nbsp;life&nbsp;is punctuated by&nbsp;phases showing&nbsp;different threats to her appearance.</p> <p>These results are common to all&nbsp;the documents&nbsp;analysed,&nbsp;both&nbsp;Italian and American.&nbsp;However, other results – such&nbsp;as the&nbsp;willingness,&nbsp;or the reluctance,&nbsp;to mention death; and&nbsp;the&nbsp;disinhibition, or&nbsp;vice versa the&nbsp;disinclination, to ridicule the elderly – seem to show that there is a marketing difference between the two countries on these issues.&nbsp;</p> Maria Francesca Fobert Veutro ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 16 3 89 102 10.6093/2723-9608/9468 3T Readings http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/10409 Sabina Curti Vincenzo Scalia Mario Coscarello ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 16 3 107 113 10.6093/2723-9608/10409 Interview with Patricia Hill Collins http://www.serena.unina.it/index.php/fuoriluogo/article/view/10394 Mariella Nocenzi Silvia Fornari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 16 3 115 120 10.6093/2723-9608/10394