TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment 2020-07-07T10:39:47+00:00 Rocco Papa Open Journal Systems <p>Tema -&nbsp;Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment&nbsp;offers researches, applications and contributions with a unified approach to planning and mobility. From 2016, TeMA is a scientific journal in A category by ANVUR (excellent scientific journal according to Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of Universities and Research Institutes). TeMA Journal has also received the <em><a href="">Sparc Europe Seal</a></em> for Open Access Journals released by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition</em> (SPARC Europe)</a> and the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Directory of Open Access Journals</em></a> (DOAJ)</p> Editorial Preface: Covid-19 vs City-20 2020-06-19T12:10:16+00:00 Carmela Gargiulo 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Covid-19 and simplification of urban planning tools. The residual plan 2020-06-19T12:11:05+00:00 Pasqualino Boschetto <p>This paper aims to develop an initial reflection on the Residual Plan can be. The Urban Plan has always coincided with the offer of public power, leaving deliberately aside the continuous 'dynamic of the real', mainly coming from the private component of our society (The demand plan). In the transition from Modern to Postmodern, the environmental question undermined the consolidated certainties of the Offer Plan; opening up increasingly consistent operational gaps with the Residual Plan, which could represent the urban plan coherent with Postmodernism. Covid-19 is further complicating the fate of the Urban Plan, increasingly complex, uncertain and unable to regenerate itself according to the new paradigms of the organization of the territory. In this sense, at least in the Covid-19 transitional period, the Residual Plan could be experimented to understand its real capability of answering to the dynamics of the organization of the territory.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Covid-19. Some moments of the 21st century, with a look at Milan 2020-06-19T12:10:46+00:00 Roberto Busi <p>Critically narrating some impacts on the civitas and urbs of the pandemic, the paper argues how the relative pathos of death and poverty unleashed on Milan is, in fact, a contingency on the endless flux of the urban body in the long history of the city. The text, divided into five paragraphs - then (May 2019), yesterday (March 2020), today (April 2020), tomorrow (May 2020) and later (May 2030) -, in addition to the bibliography, develops as in a Gaussian curve, the two extremes being (“then” and “later”) in points before and after the beginning of the curvature, respectively (i.e., describing situations “at full throttle”), the centre (“today”) the peak of the curve and the two intermediates (“yesterday” and “tomorrow”) in its ascending and descending sections, respectively. The style varies from calmness at the extremes (with mainly hypotactic periods) to the unease of the intermediates, namely, at its peak (with mainly paratactic periods).</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Geographic Information and Covid-19 Outbreak Does the spatial dimension matter? 2020-06-19T12:10:58+00:00 Michele Campagna <p class="Abstract">&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The Covid-19 pandemic in Europe started its outbreak in Italy in January 2020, and since early March 2020, it rapidly spread in most European Countries with growing diffusion rates. EU Countries applied lock-down measures accordingly. While Government across Europe relied in experts’ advice, scientific advisory teams were often lead by virologists and epidemiologists, and no evidence is easily found about the involvement of experts in spatial planning and design in emergency response. Often in the uncertainty of a new hazard emergency response, lock-down measures were based on national or regional scale planning, applying to large administrative units boundaries with little or no local differentiations. </span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This paper argues that a large-scale approach may be more effective in emergency response planning and management as it may better take into account local variations. This approach might be an important and still missing step for balancing the conflict between the two most urgent goals in the current emergency response: public health and safety vs economy re-start after the emergency lock-down.</span></p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Health emergency and economic and territorial implications. First considerations 2020-06-19T12:10:40+00:00 Salvatore Capasso Giuseppe Mazzeo <p>The Covid-19 epidemic has caused a lot of economic and social damages and has generated territorial imbalances that are not yet quantifiable. Many research groups are currently committed to deepen their understanding of the impact of the crisis using different disciplinary methodologies and focusing on different aspects of the phenomenon.&nbsp;These researches reveal causal links between the variables involved that have not been explored up until now and raise relevant questions for the economic and social future of our Country.&nbsp;This paper wants to provide an overview of the territorial and economic implications related to the epidemic event on the basis of a set of economic, settlement and environmental indicators applied to the two territorial dimensions of the Italian Regions and Provinces. For each of them, the connection with primary epidemic data (number of cases and number of deaths) was analysed to verify the possible presence and consistency of the correlation indices.&nbsp;Aim of the article is to highlight some territorial characteristics that may have facilitated the spread of the epidemic by identifying, at the same time, some actions that will positively affect them, in an evolutionary perspective.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## About the effects of Covid-19 on solid waste management 2020-06-19T12:10:29+00:00 Alessandra Cesaro Francesco Pirozzi <p>Over the last months, spread of the SaRS Co-V 19 virus has been much more than a healthcare emergency. It overrun people’s life styles, society’s organizational models, welfare systems, the economy and business world, as well as solid waste management schemes. The critical issues that have emerged require actions to overcome the crisis, while paving the way to achieve sustainable development goals: in this view, the CoViD-19 emergency may represent an opportunity, as suggested by the International Institute for the Sustainable Development. This work discusses the impact of the CoViD-19 emergency on both the generation and the management of solid waste originating from both household and healthcare activities. Data about the amount of waste produced and associated ordinary handling procedures were gathered in order to highlight how both have been affected by the measures implemented to cope with the emergency. The vulnerabilities of the overall solid waste management system have been revealed, pointing out the need for a careful rethinking of possible avenues for future development.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The city and natural resources 2020-06-19T12:10:43+00:00 Donatella Cialdea <p>The fragility of cities came into crisis with the event of the recent Covid19 pandemic. This paper contains some reflections, born during the preparation of the next National Table for River Contracts. The city needs the territory and the pandemic can be a driving force for new perspectives, in which the urban condition can be revisited with a view to improving its quality. Recent Climate Adaptation Plans, which some cities are drawing up, has to be reinforced by considerations involving natural elements. Cities crossed by rivers are fully included in the objectives of the Policy 2 "A greener Europe" of the Cohesion Policy will be financed by the Cohesion Fund, the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the European Social Fund + (ESF +) in the period 2021-2027.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evolution of mobility sector during and beyond Covid-19 emergency: a viewpoint of industry consultancies and public transport companies 2020-06-19T12:10:33+00:00 Pierluigi Coppola Francesco De Fabiis <p>This paper presents the results of a survey carried out between April and May 2020, among a panel of chief executives of industries, consultancies in the mobility sector, and of Public Transport (PT) companies. We surveyed their expectation about the impacts of Covid-19 on urban mobility in the short-medium term and on their own business, and their opinions about the effectiveness and the sustainability of the measures proposed for coping with the emergency (e.g. incentives, public investment, regulatory measures, new supply of transport services and modes). Different views emerged between industry/consultancies, on the one hand, and PT companies, on the other. The formers show more optimism towards the future thanks to the opportunities foreseen to improve labor-efficiency and for developing new products after the crisis. On the other hand, Public Transport companies appear very much uncertain about the future and worried about the expected losses of demand and revenues, that, in the panel opinion, are far to recover the levels before the crisis (also in the long term). The measures proposed to deal with the interpersonal distances and with the reduced level of capacity are seen as effective, but some are perceived as not sustainable due to the induced increase in operating costs. Finally, poor trust in the administrative capacity is observed, to implement strong measures to manage demand peak (e.g. change in the times of the cities or of the factories) and to upgrade the PT service contracts.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tourism on demand. New form of urban and social demand of use after the pandemic event 2020-06-23T08:20:37+00:00 Fabio Corbisiero Rosa Anna La Rocca <p>The Covid-19 pandemic is expected to lead to a critical reconsideration of the global volume growth model for tourism, for reasons related to the risks posed by global travel and the contribution of the tourism industry to global pollution, climate change and, more in general, the socio-cultural instability of certain geographical areas of the world. Nevertheless, it is possible to propose a different point of view by trying to accept this historical moment as an occasion to ponder over the need for a change in the unsustainability of the present lifestyles. Tourism in this can be a driver function to support this transition by giving to tourism flows a higher sense. Tourist destinations will have to change but how and how many tourist cities will be able to re-calibrate their supply system of services and facilities to host the "new tourists"? Could the on-demand model be a new way for tourists to enjoy their experience? The paper, trying to give answers to these questions, proposes some reflections about the inevitable change imposed by the pandemic, aiming at outlining the possible scenarios that will characterize the tourism-city relationship in the next future and paying attention to the social aspects.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Questioning urbanisation models in the face of Covid-19 2020-06-19T12:10:24+00:00 Giancarlo Cotella Elisabetta Vitale Brovarone <p>The COVID-19 pandemic raises questions on the ever-growing urban concentration that characterizes our society and various experts are pointing out the need to rethink our cities. At the same time, a number of voices advocate for a rediscovery of the rural. However naive they may sound, these claims have the merit to call for a thorough reflection on the challenges and potentials that alternative modes of urbanisation could bring along. In order to provide a contribution in this direction, the article introduces the challenges that the present sanitary emergency raises for contemporary urban environments, to then reflect on the reasons behind the progressive abandonment of remote rural areas, and especially on the increasingly scarce accessibility to services they offer to their inhabitants. The authors argue that policies dedicated to counteract these trends are needed, in order to enhance the overall resilience of our societies. In this concern, the National Strategy for Inner Areas, promoted by the Italian Government to trigger place-based territorial development in the remote areas of the country, is a promising way forward, and the present crisis constitutes a window of opportunity to further strengthen and refine its approach in the view of the coming EU programming period.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Covid-19 pandemic effects in rural areas 2020-07-07T10:39:47+00:00 Claudia de Luca Simona Tondelli Hanna Elisabeth Åberg <p>Rural communities tell us the story of a thousand of years of collaboration between nature, culture and humans. The current Covid-19 pandemic is considerably threating rural areas, posing challenges exacerbated by low available financial resources, not easily accessible health services and greater isolation. Rural areas are also considered safe shelters characterized by better daily living conditions thanks to easy to maintain social distancing and access to nature, to cultural and nature-based recreation activities. The Covid-19 crisis is revealing the crucial role of natural and cultural heritage for social cohesion, local development and mental wellbeing. The paper presents some responses to the Covid-19 crisis collected through an open call for action within the RURITAGE project. It aims at show how rural areas can cope with emergencies and it builds the basis to rethink the current crisis as a crucial tipping point for a resilient development of rural territories. It is key to overcome the idea of rural areas as mere food production system, calling for a broader vision of rural communities as poles of development based on local heritage, natural resources, creativity and social inclusion as essential elements to regenerate rural areas and to rapidly support their transition towards sustainable future.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Shaping space for ever-changing mobility. Covid-19 lesson learned from Milan and its region 2020-06-19T12:10:48+00:00 Diego Deponte Giovanna Fossa Andrea Gorrini <p>In the Milan experience, Covid-19 emergency crucial issues were already hidden weaknesses of the city and its region: the limited capacity of transit transport, roads and public spaces, with crowding problems for both work and leisure. The challenge is to regenerate the competitive “human measure” of Milan, based on its unique relationship between public spaces and mobility, overcoming its health risk. The report raises a question on the established transit-oriented development approach, focusing on spaces “in between” and not only on nodes and networks. The traditional “invariants” welcome changes: the spatial structure of the public realm becomes a platform for ever-changing mobility and services, providing quality of life for communities, users and tourists. With this respect, streets represent by far the most strategic asset of the urban public realm. They can be reshaped in resilient infrastructure capable to respond to new forms of mobility based on a renewed Mobility-as-A-Service paradigm, as final result of different travel behaviors of the post pandemic scenario, among which an expected reduction of the overall “mobility consumption” (space) and new temporal urban rhythms (time). To this end, short-term and responsive planning becomes a crucial opportunity to enable rapidly deployed responses, through an extensive use of new analytical tools based on Open and Big data analytics and computer-based simulations.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## From social distancing to virtual connections 2020-06-19T12:10:30+00:00 Luisa Errichiello Daniele Demarco <p>Covid-19 will have significant impacts on the world, changing many aspects of our lives, including urban life and work routines. Challenges arising from the spread of the coronavirus are likely to push the digital infrastructuring of cities, accelerating the transition towards the smart city. Additionally, we may see a permanent shift towards remote work arrangements, notably telecommuting and smart working. In the aftermath of the pandemic, the affirmation of such a scenario requires us to reflect on the challenges of an interconnected society produced by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Taking remote working as an illustrative example, the paper offers a critical reflection on how ICTs can influence our perceptions of places and argues that places play a key role in influencing the patterns of remote workers’ identity construction. The authors caution about the dark side of digital connectivity, pointing at the risks that a prolonged detachment from reality and the loss of places can put on remote workers’ identity. In order to overcome potential tensions, remote workers should avoid too much connectivity continuously balancing identity performance in both physical and virtual workplaces. Implications for both organizational and urban design are provided.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The paradigms of urban planning to emergency-proof 2020-06-19T12:10:27+00:00 Isidoro Fasolino Michele Grimaldi Francesca Coppola <p>Urban planning is one of the sectors that is able to provide a contribution to the definition of a desirable scenario for the future of the city and the territory as it deals with the physical and functional organisation of human settlements, more than others, also for reasons related to its historical origin.</p> <p>The paradigms now acquired from a disciplinary point of view, such as densification, sustainable mobility, mixitè, urban green, etc., raise the issue of compatibility with the needs of social distancing imposed by the health emergency.</p> <p>One wonders if and how the principles and criteria for the physical and functional organisation of settlements, which inform and substantiate the technical-scientific documents and the spatial and urban planning instruments themselves, will change.</p> <p>The response confirms the overall goodness of the organisational model shared by the community of urban planners. This can only be a stimulus to continue the research and application activities in the field with even greater commitment and determination.</p> <p>The crisis must in any case build an opportunity to rethink the functioning of the city, its spaces, its times and its forms of social and economic interaction, as we imagine will happen in all other fields</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Virucity. Rethinking the urban system 2020-06-23T08:18:22+00:00 Romano Fistola Dino Borri <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The paper focuses attention on three fundamental points. The first one concerns an analysis of the urban condition perceived and detected directly by the observation of the city suddenly deprived of the fruition component and characterized by the functional reset of urban activities with the exception of health functions. The second element is attributable to a systemic interpretation of the phenomenon through the analysis of the effects on urban subsystems produced by the pandemic, recalling the holistic approach to the study of urban phenomena. The third element concerns the envisaging of possible post-virus urban scenarios for which a significant bifurcation is foreseen: on the one hand, if the virus produced a rethinking of life models and the need for new ways of acting and interacting in the city we could imagine an urban future characterized by a general rebalancing of anthropic contexts; on the other hand, if the desire to return to entropic and energy-consuming models will prevail, we will continue to witness the slow degradation of human and natural habitats that will lead to the “right” extinction of human beings. These alternatives underlie a series of dilemmas that the paper emphasizes as structuring elements of possible future urban scenarios, highlighting the fundamental role of urban scientists and planners.</span></p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The role of the urban settlement system in the spread of Covid-19 pandemic. The Italian case 2020-06-20T10:49:52+00:00 Carmela Gargiulo Federica Gaglione Carmen Guida Rocco Papa Floriana Zucaro Gerardo Carpentieri <p>The paper proposes a focus on three main aspects related to the spread of the new coronavirus in our country: the correlations that have been established between the spread of the Covid-19 virus and the settlement system of our country; the urban and territorial phenomena that can be associated, positively or negatively, with the diffusion of the virus; and, finally, the correspondence between homogeneous clusters of Italian provinces (due to the current most significant urban phenomena) and the intensity and spread of the infection. The research is divided in four steps: the identification of the scientific and disciplinary approach, the definition of territorial areas and their descriptive variables, the choice of computational models, and the evaluation of the results. The main findings of the study highlight that significant correlations are not always identifiable between settlement characteristics and the spread of the infection. The diffusion of the new coronavirus is closely related to some of the main features of the demographic (e.g. people aged 65 years and above) and socio-economic (e.g. GDP for inhabitant) structure of the urban population.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## "Passata è la tempesta …”. A land use planning vision for the Italian Mezzogiorno in the post pandemic 2020-06-19T12:10:55+00:00 Paolo La Greca Francesco Martinico Fausto Carmelo Nigrelli <p>The Covid-19 pandemic event can activate a comprehensive reflection on the change of development models, overcoming the current unsustainable ones. Present events in Italy are mainly affecting Northern Regions but also the Southern ones will suffer from economic consequences, related to the pandemic. This is particularly relevant for the marginal areas of the Italian Mezzogiorno. The article highlights issues that are deemed relevant for including inner areas of Italian Southern regions into the process of economic recovery after the pandemic, in order to avoid the deepening of the long lasting North South imbalance, in the light of the growing depopulation of this part of the Country. The focus is on the role of Health Services, Education, Built up Environment and Transports, systems considered as key elements for promoting a well-balanced use of existing territorial assets. The real challenge is to reverse this terrible threat into an opportunity, introducing effective changes into the way we waste our limited planetary resources, especially the territorial ones. In this direction, Southern regions can play a fundamental role for increasing the resilience of the entire nation.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Covid-19 and spatial planning 2020-06-19T12:11:03+00:00 Sabrina Lai Federica Leone Corrado Zoppi <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This article analyzes some relevant questions as regards the impact of COVID-19-related social living conditions on spatial planning policies and practices. The proposed discussion aims at highlighting and discussing a number of outstanding topics of spatial planning which public administrative bodies, practitioners, entrepreneurs and organizations operating in the profit and non-profit sectors, and the local communities should carefully consider with reference to a new planning outset after the lockdown period. Innovative and creative approaches should be identified and implemented when dealing with collective public spaces, shopping malls, retail activities and related areas, urban and regional mobility-related infrastructure and services, food-supply changes and their implications in terms of development of local food-producing practices, spatial social control and privacy, mitigation of climate change-related negative impacts, and public awareness and commitment towards losers, especially urban losers. Each of these points presents important challenges for the future of spatial planning. Some of these challenges are synthetically described and discussed in this article.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Take advantage of the black swan to improve the urban environment 2020-06-19T12:10:56+00:00 Antonio Leone Pasquale Balena Raffaele Pelorosso <p>The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus for all humanity is a typical example of the birth of the black swan, a metaphor that indicates the event of very low probability, therefore unpredictable and a source of crisis. Statistics and probability theory teach that any deterministic hypothesis of forecasting this type of event is a chimera. More concretely, it is necessary to pay attention to the resilience of the system, so the goal must be the robustness (and perhaps even anti-fragility) of the socio-ecosystem with respect to any crisis advent, not the pursuit of the specific black swan, which, by the way, takes different forms: from financial perfect storms to pandemics, to the unpredictable effects of climate change etc.</p> <p>During the nineteenth century Europe was involved in various pandemics, which, among other things, stimulated the birth of regulatory plans and “hygienist” urban planning approach. Similarly, the present bursting of COVID-19 leads to ever greater efforts in the direction of environmental quality, which is also the protection of health.</p> <p>The paper refers to the health risk due to the urban characteristics, investigating the process of Urban Heat Island (UHI) which is a cause of health risk and of the increase in air pollution, while, at the moment, there is debate about the link between air pollution and COVID-19 diffusion, also if the first scientific papers on this topic seem to confirm the correlation. In any case, the precautionary principle pushes to take the opportunity of the crisis for a more sustainable city in terms of air breathing and wellness.</p> <p>This paper shows that it is possible to distinguish areas of the city with different UHI-air pollution hazard, according to their shape and land use. These results allow to support the choices of the planners to pursue mitigation of climatic extremes and air pollution, contributing to health of citizens and saving money from the health system.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Imagining living spaces in extreme conditions: suggestions from a case study in Bari 2020-06-19T12:10:37+00:00 Giulia Mastrodonato Domenico Camarda <p>The coronavirus pandemic has affected over 200 countries worldwide, finding an environment well-suited to its spread in cities as the heart of our civilization, as the meeting place for ideas, cultures and commercial exchanges. In these circumstances, prevention and control play a vital role, revealing the need to improve the current knowledge of users’ perception of urban spaces and the way in which spaces are perceived and used. This work aims at investigating how the coronavirus emergency influenced perception of the surrounding spaces. In this regard, two questionnaire-based surveys were carried out on a sample of students from the School of Engineering of the Polytechnic University of Bari (Italy), one during the lockdown phase and one immediately after. Even after only a preliminary analysis, results showed some interesting patterns. They revealed, on the one hand, the expectations regarding possible changes, indicating places that are particularly important or symbolic for participants, and which are perceived to be missing, and on the other, the feelings of fear, worry and uncertainty with regard to the risk of contagion during post-lockdown access to and navigation through them. Nonetheless, some changes were considered positive, thus providing a strong indication of the expectations placed on future cities</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Risk, health system and urban project 2020-06-19T12:10:39+00:00 Pierluigi Matteraglia <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The article aims to establish the relationship between risk and the Veneto health system. The analysis of this report focused on vulnerability and resilience, highlights the critical aspects on which to focus the reorganization and strengthening measures (health presidium) to face new pandemics and / or health crises. The strengthening of the health system, which has strong relations with the city, is also analyzed from the point of view of the urban project. Comparing various localization alternatives.</span></p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Geographical analyses of Covid-19's spreading contagion in the challenge of global health risks 2020-06-19T12:11:00+00:00 Beniamino Murgante Ginevra Balletto Giuseppe Borruso Giuseppe Las Casas Paolo Castiglia Marco Dettori <p>This research develops from a set of basic geographical questions about the outbreak of Covid-19 out of China in Europe. The questions dealt with why and why with such strength Italy has been seriously hit, one of the most important cases in terms of death toll out of Hubei Province and mainland China, in the world, making the country a worldwide study case for epidemic concentration and diffusion. Questions were also related to geographical similarities among the areas hit, and particularly the Po Valley region and Wuhan metropolitan region in Hubei province, and also related to why such a divide of the virus spreading was identified in Italy between Northern and Central and Southern regions and provinces. In order to try to give an answer these questions, authors realized a vast and articulated database of indicators at provincial level in Italy, performing several geographical analyses - ecological approach - based on Spatial autocorrelation and Geographical Weighted Regression, coming to the conclusion that aspects such as land take, pollution can seriously influence the phenomenon and justify a pattern as that observable in Italy. The analyses and observation of the phenomenon also suggests that policies based on urban regeneration, sustainable mobility, green infrastructures, ecosystem services can create a more sustainable scenario able to support the quality of public health.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The resilient city and adapting to the health emergency 2020-06-19T12:10:50+00:00 Francesca Pirlone Ilenia Spadaro <p>The concept of a resilient city is an increasingly critical one. Resilience represents the ability of an urban system to adapt to an external event. In the past, urban resilience was mainly addressed to natural rather than anthropic risks. Considering the Covid-19 pandemic emergency, the relationship between urban resilience and anthropic risk, especially health risk, has inevitably distorted the “normality” to which we were accustomed. The emergency has had significant long-term effects on the times, uses and organization of cities. Adaptability requires the synergic work of all actors who live or work in a city. This mobility-focused research aims to highlight the importance of the Quadruple Helix principle by analysing the specific measures that each actor -Public Authorities, Research, Enterprises and Citizens- can implement to reduce health risk. The paper outlines the contribution of the University of Genoa within the confines of a ministerial project to promote sustainable mobility for students, when travelling between home and university, using prizes/incentives. This good practice will play an increasingly important role in the return to normality.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physical spacing and spatial planning 2020-06-19T12:10:52+00:00 Piergiuseppe Pontrandolfi <p>After several months of total emergency, many of the countries concerned seem to have the Covid-19 pandemic under control. Measures and policies have been implemented almost worldwide to support the difficult economic and social recovery. The different national systems will be tested in terms of the degree of overall resilience and capacity and effectiveness of actions. In this sense, the reform of local autonomous areas and Regions becomes today even more necessary to start a long and complex process of decision-making and government-level reorganization fostering new relations, in terms of political representation and competences of the different institutional levels. The responses to limit the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the country's growth and development imply a reconfiguration of territorial and institutional geographies. In this context, the discipline of spatial planning can promote some useful reflections at two different scales of intervention: territorial and urban. This study follows these two trajectories, starting from the consideration that the choice of forcing so-called "physical distancing" (better than the ambiguous term "social distancing") has certainly represented one of the most effective ways of contrasting the contagion.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mega Cities facing Covid-19 pandemic 2020-06-19T12:11:09+00:00 Elmira Shirgir <p>The first cases of COVID-19 occurred in the winter of 2020 in Wuhan-China. The distinctiveness of the new pandemic is that it has occurred in ‘20th century megacities, cities with a large population who use the city as their second home during the day to commute to work, socialize &amp; etc. After the emergence of COVID-19 in February 2020 in Iran, and its capital city, Tehran, new restrictions and rules were put on the way citizens of Tehran were to use their city and its public spaces. These restrictions limit the use of these spaces to a great extent and it seems like these new limitations are here to stay for an unpredictable amount of time until a new medicine or vaccine is found. The main questions here are: How can the threat of this new pandemic in cities be reduced and controlled in the future ? And how can urban spaces be used from now on? In this paper, the new ways people are using the city in Tehran after arrival of the pandemic have been studied and suggestions for guaranteeing the safety of urban spaces from now on have been discussed.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rethinking rules and social practices. The design of urban spaces in the post-Covid-19 lockdown 2020-06-19T12:10:21+00:00 Maria Rosaria Stufano Melone Stefano Borgo <p class="Abstract" style="line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-GB">In the last months a pandemic has changed the daily life of billions of people. Among the efforts to reduce the impact of the disease, social distancing has had huge consequences and raised may concerns, from the inadequacy of contemporary urban design to the social inequality of national and regional lockdown. This paper focuses on the consequences that this experience is having on the design of urban public and private areas. Everybody admits that our cities are going to change but, beside the first quick adaptation to social distancing, it is unclear how to rethink today’s urban areas. We start from our previous work on the classification of architectural rules and on the study of how creativity is expressed via architectural rules, to discuss the principles and social aspects of newly proposed designs. The motivation for this analysis is to investigate and raise awareness of the consequences of changes in social practices: given that we are in need for new structures and service organization, we can still make choices and should balance the positive and negative aspects of these design alternatives. The community should be aware, as much as possible, of the intrinsic forces that novel solutions exert on our social system and urban environment. This work shows just one way to analyse architectural design, and should be considered as a contribution to a much needed broad and inclusive discussion about how we want urban spaces to be.</span></p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Data analysis and mapping for monitoring health risk. What has the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic in northern Italy taught us? 2020-06-19T12:10:34+00:00 Michela Tiboni Michèle Pezzagno David Vetturi Craig Alexander Francesco Botticini <p>The construction of the knowledge framework is a fundamental phase in the territorial governance process and data analyses, together with their mapping using GIS software, provide a fundamental basis for the structuring of a system for making decisions. With reference to the issue of risk management, monitoring of spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena is equally fundamental. The aim of the paper is to address these issues in relation to health risk, starting from the pandemic situation that affected northern Italy in the early months of 2020. The paper presents an ex-post statistical analysis of the ISTAT data on mortality in the Italian provinces, comparing the currently available 2020 data to previous years. A territorial analysis is then presented, using a GIS, regarding the spread of the Covid-19 infection in the 205 municipalities of the province of Brescia. The paper also proposes a comparison with analysis conducted for other territories outside Italy. Finally, a reflection is offered on what we have learned from this pandemic regarding the need to have a monitoring system for phenomena related to health risk, in order to reduce the vulnerability of the health system.</p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## About the Sustainability of Urban Settlements 2020-06-19T12:10:17+00:00 Maurizio Tira <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Urbanization is an onerous human activity: it affects municipal budget and foremost it costs the environment. Nevertheless, an ever-growing number of people (more than 75% of the European population) is living in cities and towns, so that identifying sustainable urban development solutions is a dramatically urgent need. Already in the 70s, some researches proposed parameters to evaluate urbanization costs in Italy, but they mainly focused on the economic and financial sustainability of real estate development. The land value capturing approaches proved to be inadequate when municipal budgets are facing growing social unbalances and critical environmental threats. The question being not just “where the money for urban infrastructures could come from”, but also “what could be a more sustainable development model”. In any case, now we are forced to rethink the whole organization of our urban life to defend ourselves from largely unknown threats, pandemics, COVID-19 being probably one among others that we could face in the near future. It is not yet clear if a link exists between the spread of the virus, the health consequences and the environmental conditions, but what probably will need to be assessed is the effect of population density on the spread of contamination. Even the traditional provision of services and public spaces will need to be defined again in order to protect and serve urban population. New evidences will force planners to redefine their thoughts and schemes.</span></p> 2020-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##