Effects of Porcine Pancreatic Enzymes on the Pancreas of Hamsters. Part 1: Basic Studies
Context Porcine pancreatic enzymes (PPE) extracted from glandular stomach has been used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. Unfortunately, no information is available on the in vitro and in vivo effect on the pancreas and other tissues. Objective We used Syrian Golden hamsters, a unique pancreatic cancer model, to obtain basic information on PPE for its eventual use for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Design PPE was used in different concentrations in vitro and in vivo. The stability of the enzyme in the water solution was investigated. It was given to the hamsters by gavage in concentrations of 1g/kg and 400 mg/kg for short periods and in aqueous solution for 65 days. Plasma enzyme and insulin, the size of islets and the number of the insulin cells per islet were examined. Results The enzyme activity of PPE was maintained in water solution for at least 24 hours. Due to its content of calcium chloride it showed a high toxicity to normal and malignant hamster pancreatic cancer cells and human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro. PPE did not alter the plasma pancreatic enzyme levels regardless of the dose, duration and application route. On the contrary, PPE reduced their levels significantly. Remarkably, it also reduced the level of insulin, the size of the islets and the number of insulin cells in the islets significantly. Conclusion The results imply that PPE does not enter the blood circulation but it appears to slow down the function of both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas.
Image: Plasma trypsin levels following PPE feeding.
Ahmedin J, T.A., Murray T, Thun M Cancer statistic 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2002; 52:23-42.
Ahmad, N.A., Lewis, J.D., Ginsberg, G.G., Haller, D.G., Morris, J.B., Williams, N.N., Rosato, E.F. and Kochman, M.L. (2001) Long term survival after pancreatic resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96, 2609-15.
Gonzalez, N.J. and Isaacs, L.L. Evaluation of pancreatic proteolytic enzyme treatment of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with nutrition and detoxification support. Nutr Cancer 1999, 33, 117-24.
Niederhuber, J.E., Brennan, M.F. and Menck, H.R. The National Cancer Data Base report on pancreatic cancer. Cancer 1995, 76, 1671-7.
Mami Takahashi , M.H., Michihiro Mutoh , Keiji Wakabayashi and Hitoshi Nakagama Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease. Cancers 2011, 3, 582-602.
Saruc, M., Standop, S., Standop, J., Nozawa, F., Itami, A., Pandey, K.K., Batra, S.K., Gonzalez, N.J., Guesry, P. and Pour, P.M. Pancreatic enzyme extract improves survival in murine pancreatic cancer. Pancreas 2004, 28, 401-12.
Hsu, S.M., Raine, L. and Fanger, H. Use of avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) in immunoperoxidase techniques: a comparison between ABC and unlabeled antibody (PAP) procedures. J Histochem Cytochem 1981, 29, 577-80.
Pour PM, K.K., Dulany K. A new technique for simultaneous demonstration of 4 tumor-associated antigens in pancreatic cancer cells Zentralblatt Pathol 1994; 140, 397-401.
Beard J. The Enzyme Treatment of Cancer. London: Chatto and Windus, 1911.
Kelley, Wm. DDS: Cancer: Curing the Incurable Without Surgery, Chemotherapy, or Radiation. Bonita, CA: New Century Promotions, 3-13, 2005 Edition.
Frost, S.C., Clark, W.A. and Wells, M.A. Studies on fat digestion, absorption, and transport in the suckling rat. IV. In vivo rates of triacylglycerol secretion by intestine and liver. J Lipid Res 1983; 24, 899-903.
Gromada, J. The free fatty acid receptor GPR40 generates excitement in pancreatic beta-cells. Endocrinology 2006; 147, 672-3.
Itoh, Y., Kawamata, Y., Harada, M., Kobayashi, M., Fujii, R., Fukusumi, S., Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells through GPR40. Nature 2003, 422, 173-6.
Copyright (c) 2014 Murat Saruc, Fumiaki Nozawa, Mehmet Yalniz, Atsushi Itami, Parviz M Pour
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.As a member of Publisher International Linking Association, PILA, iMedPub Group’s JOP follows the Creative Commons Attribution License and Scholars Open Access publishing policies. Journal of the Pancreas is the Council Contributor Member of Council of Science Editors (CSE) and following the CSE slogan Education, Ethics, and Evidence for Editors.