The smartness and competitiveness of the resilient city. Challenges and threats for 21st-century cities

Gerardo Carpentieri
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples Federico II


Publisher: FedOA Press (Federico II Open Access University Press)

Book series: Smart City, Urban Planning for a Sustainable Future

Published: November 10, 2020

doi: 10.6093/978-88-6887-088-1

Pages: 126

Language: English


Abstract: The numerous and complex economic, social and environmental challenges that will have to be faced in the coming decades in the context of the governance of urban and territorial transformations will require the use of new approaches, capable of orienting development in a socially, economically and environmentally sustainable way. The choices and initiatives for change must guarantee an adequate quality of life for citizens and favourable conditions for the development of economic and social activities. Among the challenges that cities will have to face in the coming years is that of urban population growth. Demographic projections foresee that in the coming decades there will be a further increase in world population which will mainly affect urban areas. These forecasts further underline the need to intervene above all in cities, in order to reduce the effects of the potential threats that can occur as a result of unexpected critical events, both anthropogenic and natural. In recent years, national and local governments have planned to invest significant economic resources in the development and implementation of strategies capable of addressing possible weaknesses in urban systems. In the context of the governance of urban transformations, one of the most commonly used approaches for improving the capacity of urban systems to respond to external stressors refers to the resilience paradigm, understood as the capacity of a system, community or society to resist, absorb, adapt and recover from the impacts of a calamitous event in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. The implementation of solutions aimed at improving urban resilience is essential to reduce the possible economic, social and environmental impacts owing to the critical events that can affect cities. Furthermore, the use of this approach can offer greater security both to citizens and for economic activities, both in ordinary conditions and emergencies. The satisfaction of this need has now become a fundamental element of the competition between different territorial contexts and in particular between cities. The most recent studies on urban competitiveness highlight how the issue of developing urban resilience has become an essential aspect when evaluating the competitive capabilities of various territorial contexts. The development and implementation of interventions aimed at making cities resilient cannot disregard the use of physical and functional smart solutions, which now constitute an essential support in improving the response capacity of cities and their components to internal and external stresses. Making a city resilient requires the implementation of complex infrastructural and organizational interventions which must take into account the multiplicity and dynamism of the urban components involved, and which therefore must make use of the most recent technologies, hardware and software. Taking action on urban resilience can also enable cities to achieve a better level of smartness. The in-depth analysis and considerations brought together in this work are part of this broad scientific debate. In particular, the purpose of this work is to investigate the issues related to the challenges that cities will have to face in the coming decades in order to ensure an adequate quality of life for citizens, highlighting how the use of a resilient approach can improve the response of these territorial contexts in the event of critical situations. The issues of territorial competitiveness and urban smartness are studied in detail in the context of a new scientific, technical and cultural way of thinking which takes resilience as its primary reference paradigm. This is in order to understand how far resilient development is able both to support the improvement of a city's ability to compete with other territorial contexts, and to favour the achievement of an adequate level of urban smartness. The aim is to develop a detailed and up-to-date scientific reference framework regarding the main needs and critical events faced by cities, and the need to promote the use of an approach aimed at improving urban resilience, in the context of dealing with the external and internal stresses and changes which affect these territorial contexts. In other words, the study illustrates the relationships that can be established between the development of the resilient city and, on the one hand, the ability of an urban system to compete with other territorial contexts, and on the other, the potential offered by the use of smart, physical and functional solutions in an urban setting.


Gerardo Carpentieri, DDepartment of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples Federico II

He is an engineer, Ph.D. in Civil Systems Engineering at University of Naples Federico II and Research Fellow of Land Use Planning at the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering of the University of Naples Federico II. From 2020, he is a member of Unina research group for the ERASMUS+ Key Action2: Project “Development of a Master Programme in the Management of Industrial Entrepreneurship for Transition Countries” (MIETC).


Riferimenti bibliografici

Ahern, J. (2011). From fail-safe to safe-to-fail: Sustainability and resilience in the new urban world. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100 (4), 341–343. http://dx.
Akerlof, G. A. (1978). The market for “lemons”: Quality uncertainty and the market mechanism. In Uncertainty in economics, 235-251. Academic Press.
Alberti, M., Marzluff, J. M., Shulenberger, E., Bradley, G., Ryan, C., & Zumbrunnen, C. (2003). Integrating humans into ecology: Opportunities and challenges for studying urban ecosystems. BioScience, 53 (12), 1169–1179.
Albino, V., Berardi, U., & Dangelico, R. M. (2015). Smart cities: Definitions, dimensions, performance, and initiatives. Journal of urban technology, 22 (1), 3-21.
Alexander, D. (1989). Urban landslides. Progress in Physical Geography, 13 (2), 157-189.
Amin, A. (1999). An institutionalist perspective on regional economic development. International journal of urban and regional research, 23(2), 365-378.
Anderws, F. M. (1976). Social Indicators of Well-Being: America’s Perception of Life Quality/FM Andrews, SB
Withey. Andrews, F. M. (1974). Social indicators of perceived life quality. Social indicators research, 1 (3), 279-299.
Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (2012). Social indicators of well-being: Americans' perceptions of life quality. Springer Science & Business Media. Angelidou, M. (2014). Smart city policies: A spatial approach. Cities, 41, S3-S11.
Anthopoulos, L. (2017). Smart utopia VS smart reality: Learning by experience from 10 smart city cases. Cities, 63, 128-148.
Anthopoulos, L. G. (2017). The rise of the smart city. In Understanding Smart Cities: A Tool for Smart Government or an Industrial Trick?, 5-45. Springer, Cham.
Anthopoulos, L. G., & Vakali, A. (2012). Urban planning and smart cities: Interrelations and reciprocities. In The Future Internet Assembly (178-189). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Arafah, Y., & Winarso, H. (2017). Redefining smart city concept with resilience approach. In IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 70, 1-13.
Arora, A., Florida, R., Gates, G. J., & Kamlet, M. (2000). Human capital, quality of place, and location. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnagie Mellon University. Astengo, G. (1966). voce Urbanistica in Enciclopedia Universale dell’Arte, vol. XIV, Sansoni, Venezia. ASVIS (2107). L’Agenda urbana per lo sviluppo sostenibile. Obiettivi e proposte. Disponibile al link:
Audretsch, D. B., & Keilbach, M. (2004). Entrepreneurship and regional growth: an evolutionary interpretation. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 14(5), 605-616.
Bansal, N., Mukherjee, M., & Gairola, A. (2017). From poverty, inequality to Smart City. Springer Transactions in Civil & Environmental Engineering, 109–122.
Barca, F. (2009). Agenda for a reformed cohesion policy. Brussels: European Communities. Baron, M. (2012). Do we need smart cities for resilience. Journal of Economics & Management, 10, 32-46.
Battarra, R., Fistola, R., & La Rocca, R. A. (2016). City SmartNESS: the energy dimension of the urban system. In Smart Energy in the Smart City (1-23). Springer, Cham.
Batty, M. (1995). New ways of looking at cities. Nature, 377 (6550), 574-574. Batty, M. (2008). The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science, 319 (5864), 769-771.
Batty, M., & Marshall, S. (2009). The evolution of cities: Geddes, Abercrombie and the new physicalism. Centenary paper. Town Planning Review, 80 (6), 551-574.
Beatley, T. (1995). Planning and sustainability: The elements of a new (improved?) paradigm. Journal of planning literature, 9(4), 383-395.
Begg, I. (1999). Cities and competitiveness. Urban studies, 36(5-6), 795-809. Belanche, D., Casaló, L. V., & Orús, C. (2016). City attachment and use of urban services: Benefits for smart cities. Cities, 50, 75-81.
Bettencourt, L. M., Lobo, J., Helbing, D., Kühnert, C., & West, G. B. (2007). Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 104 (17), 7301-7306.
Biagi, B., Ladu, M. G., & Meleddu, M. (2018). Urban quality of life and capabilities: An experimental study. Ecological Economics, 150, 137-152.
Birkmann, J., Garschagen, M., Kraas, F., & Quang, N. (2010). Adaptive urban governance: new challenges for the second generation of urban adaptation strategies to climate change. Sustainability Science, 5 (2), 185-206.
Blowers, A., & Pain, K. (1999). The unsustainable city?. Unruly Cities? Order/Disorder, 247-298. Boddy, M. (1999). Geographical economics and urban competitiveness: a critique. Urban Studies, 36(5-6), 811-842.
Borie, M., Pelling, M., Ziervogel, G., & Hyams, K. (2019). Mapping narratives of urban resilience in the global south. Global Environmental Change, 54, 203-213.
Brown, J., & Mczyski, M. (2009). Complexcities: Locational choices of creative knowledge workers. Built Environment, 35(2), 238-252.
Brugmann, J. (1996). Planning for sustainability at the local government level. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 16(4-6), 363-379.
Brugmann, J. (2012). Financing the resilient city. Environment and Urbanization, 24 (1), 215-232.
Bruneckienė, J., Činčikaitė, R., & Kilijonienė, A. (2012). The specifics of measurement the urban competitiveness at the national and international level. Inžinerinė ekonomika, 256-270.
Buck, N. H., Gordon, I., Harding, A., & Turok, I. (2005). Changing cities: Rethinking urban competitiveness, cohesion, and governance. Macmillan International Higher Education.
Buck, N. H., Gordon, I., Harding, A., & Turok, I. (Eds.). (2005). Changing cities: Rethinking urban competitiveness, cohesion, and governance. Macmillan International Higher Education. ISBN 978-1-4039-0680-9.
Cairney, T., & Speak, G. (2000). Developing a Smart City: Understanding Information Technology Capacity and Establishing an Agenda for Change. Centre for Regional Research and Innovation, University of Western Sydney.
Camagni, R. (2002). On the concept of territorial competitiveness: sound or misleading?. Urban studies, 39(13), 2395-2411.
Camagni, R., & Capello, R. (2005). ICTs and territorial competitiveness in the era of internet. The Annals of Regional Science, 39(3), 421-438.
Camagni, R., Gibelli, M. C., & Rigamonti, P. (2002). Urban mobility and urban form: the social and environmental costs of different patterns of urban expansion. Ecological economics, 40 (2), 199-216.
Campanella, T. J. (2006). Urban resilience and the recovery of New Orleans. Journal of the American planning association, 72 (2), 141-146.
Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. Russell Sage Foundation. Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P. (2011). Smart cities in Europe. Journal of urban technology, 18 (2), 65-82.
Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., Nijkamp, P. (2009). Smart cities in Europe. Proceedings of the 3rd Central European Conference in Regional Science (Košice, Slovak Republic, Oct 7-9). Available at:
Carli, R., Dotoli, M., Pellegrino, R., & Ranieri, L. (2013). Measuring and managing the smartness of cities: A framework for classifying performance indicators. In 2013 IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics (1288-1293). IEEE.
Chelleri, L. (2012). From the «Resilient City» to Urban Resilience. A review essay on understanding and integrating the resilience perspective for urban systems. Documents d'anàlisi geogràfica, 58 (2), 287-306.
Cheshire, P. (2009). Spatial policies, planning and urban competitiveness: the particular case of London. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. Chourabi, H., Nam, T., Walker, S., Gil-Garcia, J. R., Mellouli, S., Nahon, K., ... & Scholl, H. J. (2012, January). Understanding smart cities: An integrative framework. In 2012 45th Hawaii international conference on system sciences, 2289-2297. IEEE. doi:
Carpentieri, G., Zucaro, F., Guida, C., & Granata, L. (2019). GIS-Based Spatial Analysis for the Integrated Transport-Land Use-Energy Planning: An Application to the Great London Area. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 13, 469-481. doi:
Christaller, W. (1966). Central places in southern Germany. Prentice Hall. Cities, S. G., Sites, P. P., & as Class, N. E. R. (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Coaffee, J. (2008). Risk, resilience, and environmentally sustainable cities. Energy Policy, 36 (12), 4633-4638.
Coaffee, J. (2010). Protecting vulnerable cities: the UK's resilience response to defending everyday urban infrastructure. International Affairs, 86 (4), 939-954.
Coaffee, J., & Bosher, L. (2008). Integrating counter-terrorist resilience into sustainability. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Urban Design and Planning, 161 (2), 75-83.
Cocchia, A. (2014). Smart and digital city: A systematic literature review. In Smart city, 13-43. Springer, Cham.
Colding, J., Colding, M., & Barthel, S. (2020). The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity?. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 47 (1), 179-187.
Coppola, P., Angiello, G., Carpentieri, G., & Papa, E. (2014). Urban form and sustainability: the case study of Rome. PROCEDIA: SOCIAL & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, 160, 557-566.
Costanza, R., Fisher, B., Ali, S., Beer, C., Bond, L., Boumans, R., ... & Gayer, D. E. (2007). Quality of life: An approach integrating opportunities, human needs, and subjective well-being. Ecological economics, 61(2-3), 267-276.
Cote, M., & Nightingale, A. J. (2011). Resilience thinking meets social theory: Situating social change in socio-ecological systems (SES) research. Progress in Human Geography, 36 (4), 475–489. 0309132511425708
Cretney, R. (2014). Resilience for whom? Emerging critical geographies of socio‐ecological resilience. Geography Compass, 8 (9), 627-640.
Curry, E., Dustdar, S., Sheng, Q. Z., & Sheth, A. (2016). Smart cities–enabling services and applications. Journal of Internet Services and Applications volume, 7.
Da Silva, J., & Morera, B. (2014). City Resilience Index: City Resilience Framework. London, UK: Ove Arup & Partners International. Dameri, R. P., & Cocchia, A. (2013). Smart city and digital city: twenty years of terminology evolution. In X Conference of the Italian Chapter of AIS, ITAIS (1-8).
Dawes, S. S., Pardo, T. A., Simon, S., Cresswell, A. M., LaVigne, M. F., Andersen, D. F., & Bloniarz, P. A. (2004). Making smart IT choices: Understanding value and risk in government IT investments. The Center. Available at tit2.pdf
de Falco, S. (2018). Geographic determinism Vs urban resilience: italian scenario analysis. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 11 (1), 65-88.
de Hollander, A. E., & Staatsen, B. A. (2003). Health, environment and quality of life: an epidemiological perspective on urban development. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65 (1-2), 53-62.
de Oliviera Fernandes, E., Meeus, L., Leal, V., Azevedo, I., Delarue, E., & Glachant, J. M. (2011). Smart Cities Initiative: How to Foster a Quick Transition Towards Local Sustainable Energy Systems. European University Institute: Firenze, Italy.
Deas, I., & Giordano, B. (2001). Conceptualising and measuring urban competitiveness in major English cities: an exploratory approach. Environment and Planning A, 33(8), 1411-1429.
Del Colle, E. (2006). Tecnopoli: l'articolazione territoriale della competitività in Italia (Vol. 415). Franco Angeli. ISBN: 9788846473516.
Dijkstra, L., & Poelman, H. (2012). Cities in Europe: the new OECD-EC definition. Regional focus, 1(2012), 1-13. Disponibile al link:
Donald, B. (2001). Economic competitiveness and quality of life in city regions: compatible concepts?. Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 259-274.
Dong-Sung, C., & Hwy-Chang, M. (2000). From Adam Smith to Michael Porter: evolution of competitiveness theory (Vol. 2). World Scientific.
Douglass, M. (2002). From global intercity competition to cooperation for livable cities and economic resilience in Pacific Asia. Environment and urbanization, 14 (1), 53-68.
Duranton, G. (1999). Distance, land, and proximity: economic analysis and the evolution of cities. Environment and Planning a, 31(12), 2169-2188.
Duranton, G., & Turner, M. A. (2012). Urban growth and transportation. Review of Economic Studies, 79 (4), 1407-1440.
Dwyer, L., & Kim, C. (2003). Destination competitiveness: determinants and indicators. Current issues in tourism, 6(5), 369-414.
Economist Intelligence Unit (2012). Hot spots. Benchmarking global city competitiveness. Londres: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited.
Economist Intelligence Unit (2013). Hot spots 2025 Benchmarking the future competitiveness of cities. Disponibile al link:
Edelenbos, J., Hirzalla, F., van Zoonen, L., van Dalen, J., Bouma, G., Slob, A., & Woestenburg, A. (2018). Governing the complexity of smart data cities: Setting a research agenda. In Smart Technologies for Smart Governments, 35-54. Springer, Cham.
Ekman, U. (2018). Smart city planning: Complexity. International Journal of E-Planning Research (IJEPR), 7 (3), 1-21.
Elkinton, J. R. (1966). Medicine and the quality of life. Annals of Internal Medicine, 64, 711-714. Elmqvist, T. (2014). Urban resilience thinking. Solutions, 5(5), 26–30. http://www.
Elmqvist, T., Barnett, G., & Wilkinson, C. (2014). Exploring urban sustainability and resilience. In Resilient sustainable cities, 31-40. Routledge.
Eraydin A. (2013) “Resilience Thinking” for Planning. In: Eraydin A., Taşan-Kok T. (eds) Resilience Thinking in Urban Planning. GeoJournal Library, vol 106. Springer, Dordrecht.
Ernstson, H., Van der Leeuw, S. E., Redman, C. L., Meffert, D. J., Davis, G., Alfsen, C., & Elmqvist, T. (2010). Urban transitions: on urban resilience and human-dominated ecosystems. Ambio, 39 (8), 531-545.
Esmaeilpoorarabi, N., Yigitcanlar, T., & Guaralda, M. (2016). Place quality and urban competitiveness symbiosis? A position paper. International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development, 7 (1), 4-21.
Esmaeilpoorarabi, N., Yigitcanlar, T., & Guaralda, M. (2016). Place quality and urban competitiveness symbiosis? A position paper. International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development, 7 (1), 4-21.
European Commission (2001). A Sustainable Europe for a Better World: A European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development - COM/2001/0264 final
European Union (2016). Urban Agenda for the EU. Pact of Amsterdam. Disponibile al link:
Evans, P. (1997). State-society synergy: government and social capital in development. Research Series.
Fagerberg, J. (1988). International competitiveness. The economic journal, 98 (391), 355-374.
Fausch, J. & Ankenbrand, T. (2018). IFZ /AMP Asset Management Study 2018 An Overview of Swiss Asset
Management. Felce, D., & Perry, J. (1995). Quality of life: Its definition and measurement. Research in developmental disabilities, 16 (1), 51-74.
Fernandes, J. R., & Chamusca, P. (2014). Urban policies, planning and retail resilience. Cities, 36, 170-177.
Feurer, R., & Chaharbaghi, K. (1994). Defining competitiveness. Management Decision, 32 (2), 49-58.
Fistola, R. (2011). The unsustainable city. Urban entropy and social capital: the needing of a new urban planning. Procedia Engineering, 21, 976-984.
Fistola, R. (2013). Smart City: thinking About Urban Intelligence. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 6 (1), 47-60.
Fistola, R. Mazzeo, G. (2009) Evoluzione e morfogenesi urbana. In R. Papa (ed.) Il governo delle trasformazioni urbane e territoriali. Metodi, tecniche e strumenti. Milano, Franco Angeli. Flanagan, J. C. (1978). A research approach to improving our quality of life. American psychologist, 33(2), 138.
Flax, M. J. (1972). A Study in Comparative Urban Indicators: Conditions in 18 Large Metropolitan Areas.
Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global environmental change, 16 (3), 253-267.
Gabaix, X., & Ioannides, Y. M. (2004). The evolution of city size distributions. In Handbook of regional and urban economics, 4, 2341-2378. Elsevier.
Garau, C., Balletto, G., & Mundula, L. (2015). A critical reflection on smart governance in Italy: Definition and challenges for a sustainable urban regeneration. In International conference on Smart and Sustainable Planning for Cities and Regions, 235-250. Springer, Cham.
Gargiulo, C. (2009). Sistema Urbano e Complessità. In Papa, R., Il governo delle trasformazioni urbane e territoriali, 23-46. Franco Angeli, Milano. ISBN 978-88-568-1147-6
Gargiulo, C., Gaglione, F., Guida, C., Papa, R., Zucaro, F., & Carpentieri, G. (2020). The role of the urban settlement system in the spread of Covid-19 pandemic. The Italian case. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 189-212.
Garvin, D. A. (1988). Managing quality: The strategic and competitive edge. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-02-91130-6
George, L. K. & Bearon, L. B. (1980). Quality of life in older persons: Meaning and measurement.
Giffinger, R., Fertner, C., Kramar, H., & Meijers, E. (2007). City-ranking of European medium-sized cities. Cent. Reg. Sci. Vienna UT, 1-12.
Gil-Garcia, J. R., Zhang, J., & Puron-Cid, G. (2016). Conceptualizing smartness in government: An integrative and multi-dimensional view. Government Information Quarterly, 33 (3), 524-534.
Girardi, P., & Temporelli, A. (2017). Smartainability: a methodology for assessing the sustainability of the smart city. Energy Procedia, 111 (1), 810-816.
Glaeser, E. (2000). Urban and regional growth. The Handbook of Economic Geography, 83-98. Godschalk, D. R. (2003). Urban hazard mitigation: Creating resilient cities. Natural Hazards Review, 4 (3), 136–143. 6988(2003)4:3(136)
Greene, F. J., Tracey, P., & Cowling, M. (2007). Recasting the city into city‐regions: Place promotion, competitiveness benchmarking and the quest for urban supremacy. Growth and Change, 38(1), 1-22.
Grimm, N. B., Faeth, S. H., Golubiewski, N. E., Redman, C. L., Wu, J., Bai, X., & Briggs, J. M. (2008). Global change and the ecology of cities. Science, 319(5864), 756-760. https://10.1126/science.1150195
Hajós, T. R. S. (2013). Health-Related Quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing therapy intensification. Hall, R. E., Bowerman, B., Braverman, J., Taylor, J., Todosow, H., & Von Wimmersperg, U. (2000). The vision of a smart city (No. BNL-67902; 04042). Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US).
Harrison, C., Eckman, B., Hamilton, R., Hartswick, P., Kalagnanam, J., Paraszczak, J., & Williams, P. (2010). Foundations for smarter cities. IBM Journal of research and development, 54(4), 1-16.
Harvey, D. J., Merry, A. H., Royle, L., Campbell, M. P., & Rudd, P. M. (1996). Justice, nature & the geography of difference.
Haughton, G. (1997). Developing sustainable urban development models. Cities, 14(4), 189-195.
Helburn, N. (1982). Geography and the quality of life. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 72(4), 445-456.
Henry, D., & Ramirez-Marquez, J. E. (2012). Generic metrics and quantitative approaches for system resilience as a function of time. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 99, 114–122.
Hollands, R. G. (2008). Will the real smart city please stand up? Intelligent, progressive or entrepreneurial?. City, 12 (3), 303-320.
Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual review of ecology and systematics, 4 (1), 1-23.
Holling, C. S. (1996). Engineering resilience versus ecological resilience. Engineering within ecological constraints, 31 (1996), 32.
Huggins, R. A., & Izushi, H. (2007). Competing for knowledge: creating, connecting and growing. Routledge.
Huggins, R., & Thompson, P. (2012). Well-being and competitiveness: are the two linked at a place-based level?. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 5 (1), 45-60.
Huzzard, T. (2003). The convergence of the quality of working life and competitiveness. Stockholm: National Institute for Working Life. ISBN 91-7045-683-6
Imbriani, C., Morone, P., & Testa, G. (2008). Exporting quality: is it the right strategy for the Italian manufacturing sector?.
Imrie, R., & Raco, M. (Eds.). (2003). Urban renaissance?: New Labour, community and urban policy. Policy Press. ISBN 1861343809
Jabareen, Y. (2013). Planning the resilient city: Concepts and strategies for coping with climate change and environmental risk. Cities, 31, 220-229.
Jacobs, J. (2016). The death and life of great American cities. Vintage. ISBN: 0-679-74195-X
Jansson, J., & Waxell, A. (2011). Quality and regional competitiveness. Environment and planning A, 43(9), 2237-2252.
Jennings, P. (2010). Managing the risks of Smarter Planet solutions. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 54 (4), 1-9.
Jensen-Butler, C. (1997) Competition between cities, urban performance and the role of urban policy: a theoretical framework. In: Jensen-Butler, C., Shachar, A. and van Weesep, J. (ed.) European Cities in Competition, 3-42. Aldershot: Avebury.
Jensen-Butler, C. (1999). Cities in competition: equity issues. Urban studies, 36(5-6), 865-891.
Jessop, B., & Sum, N. L. (2000). An entrepreneurial city in action: Hong Kong's emerging strategies in and for (inter) urban competition. Urban studies, 37(12), 2287-2313.
Jianfa, S. H. E. N. (2001). The urban competitiveness and urban governance in the globalizing world. City Planning Review, 9, 19-36.
Jiang, Y., & Shen, J. (2010). Measuring the urban competitiveness of Chinese cities in 2000. Cities, 27(5), 307-314.
Jin, S. Y. (2012). Identification about Key Element of Urban Core Competitiveness Based on Structural Equation Model. In Business, Economics, Financial Sciences, and Management , 21-28. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Johnson, M. T., & Munshi-South, J. (2017). Evolution of life in urban environments. Science, 358 (6363), eaam8327.
Kaur, H., & Garg, P. (2019). Urban sustainability assessment tools: A review. Journal of cleaner production, 210, 146-158.
Kelly, J. M., & Swindell, D. (2002). Service quality variation across urban space: First steps toward a model of citizen satisfaction. Journal of urban affairs, 24 (3), 271-288.
Kerce, E. W. (1992). Quality of life: Meaning, measurement, and models (No. NPRDC-TN-92-15). Navy personnel research and development center San Diego CA.
Khalil, H. A. E. E. (2012). Enhancing quality of life through strategic urban planning. Sustainable cities and society, 5, 77-86.
Klein, C., & Kaefer, G. (2008). From smart homes to smart cities: Opportunities and challenges from an industrial perspective. In International Conference on Next Generation Wired/Wireless Networking, 260-260. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Klopp, J. M., & Petretta, D. L. (2017). The urban sustainable development goal: Indicators, complexity and the politics of measuring cities. Cities, 63, 92-97.
Knudsen, B., Florida, R., Gates, G., & Stolarick, K. (2007). Urban density, creativity and innovation.
Kogan, N., & Lee, K. J. (2014). Exploratory research on success factors and challenges of Smart City Projects. Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems, 24 (2), 141-189.
Krätke, S. (2007). Metropolisation of the European economic territory as a consequence of increasing specialisation of urban agglomerations in the knowledge economy. European planning studies, 15 (1), 1-27.
Krätke, S. (2011). The creative capital of cities: Interactive knowledge creation and the urbanization economies of innovation (Vol. 32).
John Wiley & Sons. Kresl, P. K., & Singh, B. (1999). Competitiveness and the urban economy: twenty-four large US metropolitan areas. Urban studies, 36(5-6), 1017-1027.
Krugman, P. (1994). Competitiveness: a dangerous obsession. Foreign Aff., 73, 28.
Kumar, H., Singh, M. K., Gupta, M. P., & Madaan, J. (2020). Moving towards smart cities: solutions that lead to the smart city transformation framework. Technological forecasting and social change, 153, 119281.
Lall, S. (2001). Competitiveness indices and developing countries: an economic evaluation of the global competitiveness report. World development, 29(9), 1501-1525.
Lee, J. H., Hancock, M. G., & Hu, M. C. (2014). Towards an effective framework for building smart cities: Lessons from Seoul and San Francisco. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 89, 80-99.
Leichenko, R. (2011). Climate change and urban resilience. Current opinion in environmental sustainability, 3 (3), 164-168.
Lhomme, S., Serre, D., Diab, Y., & Laganier, R. (2013). Urban technical networks resilience assessment. In R. Laganier (Ed.), Resilience and urban risk management, 109–117. London: CRC Press.
Li, B. (2018). Top-down place-based competition and award: local government incentives for non-GDP improvement in China. Journal of Chinese Governance, 3(4), 397-418.
Liao, K.-H. (2012). A theory on urban resilience to floods – A basis for alternative planning practices. Ecology and Society, 17 (4), 48. http://www.
Libery, B., & Kneafsey, M. (1998). Product and place: promoting quality products and services in the lagging rural regions of the European Union. European Urban and Regional Studies, 5(4), 329-341.
Lindskog, H. (2004). Smart communities initiatives. In Proceedings of the 3rd ISOneWorld Conference, 16, 14-16.
Liu, X. (2010). Housing renewal policies, house prices and urban competitiveness. Applied Geography, 30 (2), 221-228.
Loorbach, D., & Shiroyama, H. (2016). The challenge of sustainable urban development and transforming cities. In Governance of urban sustainability transitions (3-12). Springer, Tokyo.
Loper, M. (2019). Trusting Smart Cities: Risk Factors and Implications.
Luque A, McFarlane C and Marvin S (2014). Smart urbanism: Cities, grids and alternatives? In: Hodson M and Marvin S (eds) After Sus- tainable Cities? London: Routledge, 74–90.
Luque-Ayala, A., & Marvin, S. (2019). Developing a critical understanding of smart urbanism. In Handbook of Urban Geography. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Macke, J., Casagrande, R. M., Sarate, J. A. R., & Silva, K. A. (2018). Smart city and quality of life: Citizens’ perception in a Brazilian case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 182, 717-726.
Makse, H. A., Havlin, S., & Stanley, H. E. (1995). Modelling urban growth patterns. Nature, 377 (6550), 608-612.
Malecki, E. (2004). Jockeying for position: what it means and why it matters to regional development policy when places compete. Regional studies, 38(9), 1101-1120.
Manitiu, D. N., & Pedrini, G. (2016). Urban smartness and sustainability in Europe. An ex ante assessment of environmental, social and cultural domains. European Planning Studies, 24 (10), 1766-1787.
Manville, C., Cochrane, G., Cave, J., Millard, J., Pederson, J. K., Thaarup, R. K., ... & Kotterink, B. (2014). Mapping smart cities in the EU.
Marsa-Maestre, I., Lopez-Carmona, M. A., Velasco, J. R., & Navarro, A. (2008). Mobile Agents for Service Personalization in Smart Environments. J. Networks, 3 (5), 30-41.
Martin, R., & Simmie, J. (2008). The theoretical bases of urban competitiveness: does proximity matter?. Revue dEconomie Regionale Urbaine, (3), 333-351.
Massam, B. H. (2002). Quality of life: public planning and private living. Progress in planning, 58 (3), 141-227.
Matos, F., Vairinhos, V. M., Dameri, R. P., & Durst, S. (2017). Increasing smart city competitiveness and sustainability through managing structural capital. Journal of Intellectual Capital.
Mazzeo, G. (2016). La città leggera. Smart City e urbanistica attuativa, FedOA Press (Federico II Open Access University Press), Napoli, pp. 200. 10.6093/978-88-6887-008-9
Mazzeo, G. (2017). Introduzione alla sessione 03 - Resilienza, circolarità, sostenibilità. In F.D. Moccia, M. Sepe (Eds.), Crisi e rinascita delle città. Urbanistica Informazioni, 272 s.i., 218-219. X Giornata di Studi INU “Crisi e rinascita delle città”. Napoli, 15/12/2017.
McCrea, R., Shyy, T. K., & Stimson, R. (2006). What is the strength of the link between objective and subjective indicators of urban quality of life?. Applied research in quality of life, 1(1), 79-96.
McEwen, L., Garde‐Hansen, J., Holmes, A., Jones, O., & Krause, F. (2017). Sustainable flood memories, lay knowledges and the development of community resilience to future flood risk. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 42 (1), 14-28.
Meerow, S., & Newell, J. P. (2015). Resilience and complexity: A bibliometric review and prospects for industrial ecology. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 19(2), 236–251.
Meerow, S., & Newell, J. P. (2019). Urban resilience for whom, what, when, where, and why?. Urban Geography, 40 (3), 309-329.
Meerow, S., Newell, J. P., & Stults, M. (2016). Defining urban resilience: A review. Landscape and urban planning, 147, 38-49.
Melchiorri M., Florczyk A.J., Corbane C., Schiavina M., Pesaresi M. (2018). Monitoring 25 years of Land Use Efficiency in 10,000 Urban Centers: perspectives from the Global Human Settlements Layer. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Sustainable Development, New York.
Melo, P. C., Graham, D. J., & Noland, R. B. (2009). A meta-analysis of estimates of urban agglomeration economies. Regional science and urban Economics, 39 (3), 332-342.
Moglia, M., Cork, S.J., Boschetti, F., Cook, S., Bohensky, E., Muster, T., Page, D., 2018. Urban transformation stories for the 21st century: insights from strategic conversations. Global Environmental Changes Part A, 50, 222–237.
Montgomery, M. R., Stren, R., Cohen, B., & Reed, H. E. (2013). Cities transformed: demographic change and its implications in the developing world. Routledge.
Moomaw, R. L., & Shatter, A. M. (1996). Urbanization and economic development: a bias toward large cities?. Journal of Urban Economics, 40 (1), 13-37.
Morris, A. E. J. (2013). History of urban form before the industrial revolution. Routledge.
Mosannenzadeh, F., & Vettorato, D. (2014). Defining Smart City. A Conceptual Framework Based on Keyword Analysis. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment.
Muggah, R. (2012). Researching the urban dilemma: Urbanization, poverty and violence. Disponibile al link:
Murdoch, J., Marsden, T., & Banks, J. (2000). Quality, nature, and embeddedness: Some theoretical considerations in the context of the food sector. Economic geography, 76(2), 107-125.
Myers, D. (1987). Community-relevant measurement of quality of life: A focus on local trends. Urban affairs quarterly, 23 (1), 108-125.
Naess, P. (2001). Urban planning and sustainable development. European Planning Studies, 9 (4), 503-524.
Nam, T., & Pardo, T. A. (2011). Smart city as urban innovation: Focusing on management, policy, and context. In Proceedings of the 5th international conference on theory and practice of electronic governance, 185-194.
Naphade, M., Banavar, G., Harrison, C., Paraszczak, J., & Morris, R. (2011). Smarter cities and their innovation challenges. Computer, 44 (6), 32-39.
Natoli, S. J. (1971). Zoning and the development of urban land use patterns. Economic Geography, 47 (2), 171-184.
Neumark, D., & Simpson, H. (2015). Place-based policies. In Handbook of regional and urban economics (Vol. 5, pp. 1197-1287). Elsevier.
Nevens, F., Frantzeskaki, N., Gorissen, L., & Loorbach, D. (2013). Urban Transition Labs: co-creating transformative action for sustainable cities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 50, 111-122. New York (Open Library): Human Sciences Press.
Ooms, W., Caniëls, M. C., Roijakkers, N., & Cobben, D. (2020). Ecosystems for smart cities: tracing the evolution of governance structures in a dutch smart city initiative. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1-34.
Papa, R. (2009). Il governo delle trasformazioni urbane e territoriali. Franco Angeli, Milano. Papa, R. (2009). Il governo delle trasformazioni urbane e territoriali. Franco Angeli, Milano. ISBN 978-88-568-1147-6
Papa, R., Galderisi, A., Vigo Majello, M. C., & Saretta, E. (2015). Smart and Resilient Cities. A Systemic Approach for Developing Cross-sectoral Strategies in the Face of Climate Change. TeMA. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 8 (1), 19-49.
Papa, R., Gargiulo, C., & Battarra, R. (2016). Città Metropolitane e Smart Governance: Iniziative di successo e nodi critici verso la Smart City, 1. FedOA-Federico II University Press.
Papa, R., Gargiulo, C., & Galderisi, A. (2013). Towards an urban planners’ perspective on Smart City. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 6 (1), 5-17.
Papa, R., Gargiulo, C., Cristiano, M., Di Francesco, I., & Tulisi, A. (2015). Less Smart More City. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 8 (2), 159-182.
Papa, R., Gargiulo, C., Fistola, R., & Battarra, R. (1992). La città come sistema complesso in crisi strutturale-strumenti e tecniche per il governo metropolitano. Fondazione Aldo Della Rocca, Roma.
Papa, R., Gargiulo, C., Franco, S., & Russo, L. (2014). The Evolution of Urban Competitiveness in Italy form 1995 to 2013.
Papa, R., Gargiulo, C., Franco, S., & Russo, L. (2014). Urban Smartness Vs Urban Competitiveness: A Comparison of Italian Cities Rankings. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment.
Pelling, M.A., Abeling, T., Garschagen, M., 2017. Emergence and transition in London’s climate change adaptation pathways. Journal Extreme Events 3, 3.
Pirlone, F., & Spadaro, I. (2020). The resilient city and adapting to the health emergency. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 305-314.
Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. Harvard business review, 68(2), 73-93. Porter, M. E. (1998). Clusters and the new economics of competition (Vol. 76, No. 6, pp. 77-90). Boston: Harvard Business Review.
Praharaj, S., Han, J. H., & Hawken, S. (2018). Urban innovation through policy integration: Critical perspectives from 100 smart cities mission in India. City, Culture and Society, 12 (1), 35–43.
Psatha, E., Deffner, A., & Psycharis, Y. (2011). Defining the quality of urban life: Which factors should be considered?.
Rao, F., & Summers, R. J. (2016). Planning for retail resilience: Comparing Edmonton and Portland. Cities, 58, 97-106.
Reiner, M., & McElvaney, L. (2017). Foundational infrastructure framework for city resilience. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, 2 (1), 1-7. Resilient Cities, 2018. ’100 Resilient Cities Programme’ [online]. Available at:. Last Accessed 20 July 2018.
Rode, P., Floater, G., Thomopoulos, N., Docherty, J., Schwinger, P., Mahendra, A., & Fang, W. (2017). Accessibility in cities: transport and urban form. In Disrupting mobility, 239-273. Springer, Cham.
Rogerson, R. J. (1999). Quality of life and city competitiveness. Urban studies, 36(5-6), 969-985.
Rosati, U., & Conti, S. (2016). What is a smart city project? An urban model or a corporate business plan?. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 223, 968-973.
Royuela, V., Moreno, R., & Vayá, E. (2007). Is the influence of quality of life on urban growth non-stationary in space? A case study of Barcelona. Documents de Treball, 3.
Sáez, L., Periáñez, I., & Heras-Saizarbitoria, I. (2017). Measuring urban competitiveness: ranking European large urban zones. Journal of Place Management and Development.
Salvati, L., Gargiulo Morelli, V., Weijnen, M., van Bueren, E., Wenzler, I., & De Reuver, M. (2013). Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 6 (1), 73-86.
Salzano, E. (1998). Fondamenti di urbanistica: la storia e la norma. Rome/Bari: Laterza.
Schaffers, H., Komninos, N., Pallot, M., Trousse, B., Nilsson, M., & Oliveira, A. (2011). Smart cities and the future internet: Towards cooperation frameworks for open innovation. In The future internet assembly, 431-446.
Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Scott, A. J. (1995). The geographic foundations of industrial performance. Competition & Change, 1(1), 51-66.
Serag El Din, H., Shalaby, A., Farouh, H. E., & Elariane, S. A. (2013). Principles of urban quality of life for a neighborhood. Hbrc Journal, 9 (1), 86-92.
Seth, J. (1889). The evolution of morality. Mind, 14 (53), 27-49.
Shan, L. (2010). The quantitative analysis and evaluation of urban competitiveness in Wuhan City Circle [J]. Territory & Natural Resources Study, 1.
Shen, J. (2004). Urban competitiveness and urban governance in the globalizing world. Asian geographer, 23(1-2), 19-36.
Simon, C. J. (1998). Human capital and metropolitan employment growth. Journal of Urban Economics, 43(2), 223-243.
Simpson, P. M., Siguaw, J. A., & Enz, C. A. (2006). Innovation orientation outcomes: The good and the bad. Journal of Business Research, 59 (10-11), 1133-1141.
Singhal, S., McGreal, S., & Berry, J. (2013). An evaluative model for city competitiveness: Application to UK cities. Land Use Policy, 30 (1), 214-222.
Sinha, B. R. K. (2019). Introduction: An Overview of the Concept of Quality of Life. In Multidimensional Approach to Quality of Life Issues, 3-23. Springer, Singapore.
Spaans, M., & Waterhout, B. (2017). Building up resilience in cities worldwide – Rotterdam as participant in the 100 resilient cities programme. Cities, 61, 109–116.
Spangler, W. S., Kreulen, J. T., Chen, Y., Proctor, L., Alba, A., Lelescu, A., & Behal, A. (2010). A smarter process for sensing the information space. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 54 (4), 1-13.
Stanley, M. G., 1973. The quality of life concept: A potential new tool for decision- makers. Research and Monitoring, Environmental Studies Division, The Environmental Protection Agency, United States. Storper, M. (1997). The regional world: territorial development in a global economy. Guilford press. ISBN 1-57230-258-5
Stover, M. E., & Leven, C. L. (1992). Methodological issues in the determination of the quality of life in urban areas. Urban Studies, 29 (5), 737-754.
Stratigea, A., & Panagiotopoulou, M. (2014). Smart Cities as a New Paradigm for Serving Urban Sustainability Objectives–A View in the Mediterranean Experience. In Paper presented at International Conference on Socio-economic Sustainability, Regional Development and Spatial Planning: European and International Dimensions and Perspectives, Mytilene, 213-220.
Stratigea, A., Papadopoulou, C. A., & Panagiotopoulou, M. (2015). Tools and technologies for planning the development of smart cities. Journal of Urban Technology, 22 (2), 43-62.
Sun, Y. S. (2005). Development of neighbourhood quality of life indicators. Community-University Institute for Social Research.
Sveiby, K. E., Gripenberg, P., Segercrantz, B., Eriksson, A., & Aminoff, A. (2009). Unintended and undesirable consequences of innovation. In XX ISPIM conference, The Future of Innovation. Vienna.
Taylor Buck, N., & While, A. (2017). Competitive urbanism and the limits to smart city innovation: The UK Future Cities initiative. Urban Studies, 54 (2), 501-519.
Tiboni, M., & Rossetti, S. (2012). L'utente debole quale misura dell'attrattività urbana. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 5 (3), 91-102.
Tira, M. (1997). Pianificare la città sicura. Editoriale Dedalo, Roma. ISBN 8886599137
Tira, M. (2020). About the Sustainability of Urban Settlements. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 361-371.
Tira, M., Tiboni, M., Rossetti, S., & De Robertis, M. (2018). “Smart” Planning to Enhance Nonmotorised and Safe Mobility in Today’s Cities. In Smart Planning: Sustainability and Mobility in the Age of Change (201-213). Springer, Cham.
Toppeta, D. (2010). The smart city vision: how innovation and ICT can build smart,“livable”, sustainable cities. The innovation knowledge foundation, 5, 1-9. Disponibile al link peta_Report_005_2010.pdf
Trencher, G. (2019). Towards the smart city 2.0: Empirical evidence of using smartness as a tool for tackling social challenges. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 142, 117-128.
Turok, I. (2004). Cities, regions and competitiveness. Regional studies, 38(9), 1069-1083.
Turok, I. (2005). Cities, competition and competitiveness: identifying new connections. ISBN 9781403906793
Ultan, M. Ö. (2018). A Quantitative Research about the Effect of Euroscepticism on the European Integration. on European Integration 2018, 1531. ISBN 978-80-248-4169-4
UNEP - DTIE. (2013). Global Initiative for Resource Efficient Cities. Disponibile al link:
United Nations Habitat (2016). Urbanization and Development Emerging Futures Key Findings and Messages. World Cities Report. Nairobi, UN Habitat. Disponibile al link:
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2018). The World’s Cities in 2018—Data Booklet. Disponibile al link: pdf/the_worlds_cities_in_2018_data_booklet.pdf
United Nations. (2019). World population prospects 2019. Disponibile al link://
Vale, L. J. (2014). The politics of resilient cities: whose resilience and whose city?. Building Research & Information, 42 (2), 191-201.
Valerio, P. (2015). Is the IoT a Tech Bubble for Cities?: With more cities joining the smart city revolution and investing in sensors and other IoT devices, the risk of a new tech bubble is rising. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 5 (1), 61-62.
Van den Berg, L., & Braun, E. (1999). Urban competitiveness, marketing and the need for organising capacity. Urban studies, 36 (5-6), 987-999.
Van Winden, W., & Carvalho, L. (2008). Urban competitiveness in the knowledge economy: evolution paths of the Portuguese metropolises. In Knowledge-Based Urban Development: Planning and Applications in the Information Era, 203-220. IGI Global.
Vanolo, A. (2014). Smartmentality: The smart city as disciplinary strategy. Urban studies, 51(5), 883-898.
Voytenko, Y., McCormick, K., Evans, J., & Schliwa, G. (2016). Urban living labs for sustainability and low carbon cities in Europe: Towards a research agenda. Journal of Cleaner Production, 123, 45-54.
Wamsler, C., Brink, E., & Rivera, C. (2013). Planning for climate change in urban areas: From theory to practice. Journal of Cleaner Production, 50, 68–81. http://
Wardekker, A., Wilk, B., Brown, V., Uittenbroek, C., Mees, H., Driessen, P., ... & Runhaar, H. (2020). A diagnostic tool for supporting policymaking on urban resilience. Cities, 101, 102691.
Washburn, D., Sindhu, U., Balaouras, S., Dines, R. A., Hayes, N., & Nelson, L. E. (2009). Helping CIOs understand “smart city” initiatives. Growth, 17 (2), 1-17.
Weber, M. (1958). The City (The Free Press, New York) Webster, D., & Muller, L. (2000). Urban competitiveness assessment in developing country urban regions: The road forward. Urban Group, INFUD. The World Bank, Washington DC, July, 17, 47.
Werker, C., & Athreye, S. (2004). Marshall’s disciples: knowledge and innovation driving regional economic development and growth. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 14(5), 505-523.
Whittaker, B. (1999). What went wrong? Unsuccessful information technology projects. Information Management & Computer Security. 7 (1), 23-30.
Williams, K. (2017). Spatial planning, urban form and sustainable transport: An introduction. In Spatial Planning, Urban Form and Sustainable Transport, 15-28. Routledge. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our common future, 17, 1-91. Disponibile al link:
Xu, J., & Yeh, A. G. (2005). City repositioning and competitiveness building in regional development: New development strategies in Guangzhou, China. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(2), 283-308.
Yigitcanlar, T., Kamruzzaman, M., Buys, L., Ioppolo, G., Sabatini-Marques, J., da Costa, E. M., & Yun, J. J. (2018). Understanding ‘smart cities’: Intertwining development drivers with desired outcomes in a multidimensional framework. Cities, 81, 145-160.
Zhang, X., & Li, H. (2018). Urban resilience and urban sustainability: What we know and what do not know?. Cities, 72, 141-148.