Smart city planning and development shortcomings
This paper explores smart city planning and development shortcomings. In particular, it investigates eleven cases of smart city strategies and the shortcomings that were observed during their planning and implementation stages. The cases include: Barcelona Smart City, PlanlT Valley, Stockholm Smart City, Cyberjaya, King Abdullah Economic City, Masdar City, Skolkovo, Songdo International Business District, Chicago Smart City, Rio de Janeiro Smart City, and Konza Technology City. The paper proceeds with the synthesis of the findings and their critical appraisal. Shortcomings are classified into economic and budget shortages, bureaucratic and organizational challenges, challenges in the development and layout of digital services, poor physical planning, struggle to attract investment and support the development of new businesses, low performance in attracting and engaging users, and stakeholder resistance. In turn, the shortcomings are clustered in two distinct groups and analyzed in terms of causes and effects. The paper closes with mitigation propositions, accounting for past experience and novel approaches to this end.
Alusi, A., Eccles, R. G., Edmondson, A. C., & Zuzul, T. (2010). Sustainable Cities: Oxymoron or the Shape of the Future? Harvard Business School Working Paper 11-062.
Angelidou, M. (2014). Smart city policies: A spatial approach. Cities, 41, S3-S11. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2014.06.007
Angelidou, M. (2015). Smart Cities: a conjuncture of four forces. Cities, 47, 95–106. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2015.05.004
Angelidou, M. (2016). Four European Smart City Strategies. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 4(4), 18-30. doi: 10.11114/ijsss.v4i4.1364
Bakici, T., Almirall, E., & Wareham, J. (2012). A Smart City Initiative: the Case of Barcelona. Journal of the knowledge economy. Special Issue: Smart Cities and the Future Internet in Europe, 135-148. doi: 10.1007/s13132-012-0084-9
Barcelona Smart City Official Website (2016). BCN Smart City. Retrieved from http://smartcity.bcn.cat/en/
Barresi, A., & Pultrone, G. (2013). European strategies for smarter cities. TeMA Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment (1), 61-72. doi: 10.6092/1970-9870/1455
Bencardino, M., & Greco, I. (2014). Smart communities. Social innovation at the service of the smart cities. TeMA. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, Special Issue: Eighth International Conference INPUT. Smart City - Planning for Energy, Transportation and Sustainability of the Urban System, Naples, 4-6 June 2014, 39-51. doi: 10.6092/1970-9870/2533
Benedikt, O. (2016). The valuable citizens of smart cities: The case of Songdo City. Graduate Journal of Social Science, 12(1), 17-36.
Brooker, D. M. (2008). Intelligent cities? Disentangling the symbolic and material effects of technopole planning practices in Cyberjaya, Malaysia. Doctoral Thesis, Durham University. Retrieved from http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/2464/
Buck, N. T., & While, A. (2015). Competitive urbanism and the limits to smart city innovation: The UK Future Cities initiative. Urban Studies, doi: 0042098015597162.
Buscher, V., & Doody, L. (2013). Global Innovators: International Case Studies on Smart Cities, BIS Research Paper 135.
Calzada, I. (2017). The Techno-Politics of Data and Smart Devolution in City-Regions: Comparing Glasgow, Bristol, Barcelona, and Bilbao. Systems, 5(1), 18. doi:10.3390/systems5010018
Carvalho, L. (2015). Smart cities from scratch? A socio-technical perspective. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8(1), 43-60. doi: 10.1093/cjres/rsu010
Carvalho, L., Santos, I. P., & Van Winden, W. (2014). Knowledge spaces and places: From the perspective of a “born-global” start-up in the field of urban technology. Expert Systems with Applications, 41(12), 5647-5655. doi: 10.1016/j.eswa.2014.02.015
City of Chicago (2013). The City of Chicago Technology Plan. Retrieved from http://techplan.cityofchicago.org/
Crang, M., Crosbie, T., & Graham, S. (2006). Variable geometries of connection: urban digital divides and the uses of information technology. Urban Studies, Special Issue: Planning ‘Smart’ City-regions in an Age of Market-driven Urbanism, 43(13), 2551-2570. doi: 10.1080/00420980600970664
Crot, L. (2013). Planning for Sustainability in Non-democratic Polities: The Case of Masdar City. Urban Studies, 50(13), 2809- 2825 doi: 10.1177/0042098012474697
Cugurullo, F. (2013). How to Build a Sandcastle: An Analysis of the Genesis and Development of Masdar City. Journal of Urban Technology, 20(1), 23-37. doi: 10.1080/10630732.2012.735105
Cyberjaya Official Website (2011). Retrieved from http://www.cyberjaya-msc.com/index.asp
Datta, A. (2015a). New urban utopias of postcolonial India: ‘Entrepreneurial urbanization’ in Dholera smart city, Gujarat. Dialogues in Human Geography, 5(1), 3-22. doi: 10.1177/2043820614565748
Datta, A. (2015b). A 100 smart cities, a 100 utopias. Dialogues in Human Geography , 5(1), 49-53. doi: 10.1177/2043820614565750
Eccles, R. G., Edmondson, A. C., Thyne, S., & Zuzul, T. (2010). Living PlanIT. Harvard Business School Working Paper 9- 410-081.
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of management review, 14(4), 532-550.
Elmaghraby, A. S., & Losavio, M. M. (2014). Cyber security challenges in Smart Cities: Safety, security and privacy. Journal of advanced research. Journal of advanced research, 5(4), 491-497. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2014.02.006
Fernández-Vázquez, A., & López-Forniés, I. (2017). Analysis and comparison of Smart City initiatives. Advances on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Manufacturing. Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Mechanics, Design Engineering & Advanced Manufacturing, 14-16 September, 2016, Catania, Italy (pp. 363-371): Springer.
Günel, G. (2014). Masdar City's hidden brain; When monitoring and modification collide. Applied Research Practices in Architecture Journal (1).
Glasmeier, A. K., & Nebiolo, M. (2016). Thinking about Smart Cities: The Travels of a Policy Idea that Promises a Great Deal, but So Far Has Delivered Modest Results. Sustainability. Sustainability, 8(11), 1122. doi: doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsu034
Goldstein, B. (2013). Open Data in Chicago: Game On. In B. Goldstein & L. Dyson (Eds.), Beyond transparency: Open data and the future of civic innovation (pp. 13-26). San Francisco, CA: Code for America Press.
Goodspeed, R. (2015). Smart cities: moving beyond urban cybernetics to tackle wicked problems. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8(1), 79-92.
Graham, S., & Marvin, S. (2001). Splintering urbanism: networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the urban condition: Psychology Press.
Greenfield, A. (2013). Against the Smart City, from http://urbanomnibus.net/2013/10/against-the-smart-city/
Harrison, K. (2017). Who Is the Assumed User in the Smart City? In Designing, Developing, and Facilitating Smart Cities (pp. 17-32): Springer International Publishing.
Heo, T., Kim, K., Kim, H., Lee, C., Ryu, J. H., Leem, Y. T., & Ko, J. (2014). Escaping from ancient Rome! Applications and challenges for designing smart cities. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, 25(1), 109-119.
Hollands, R. G. (2008). Will the real smart city please stand up? City, 12(3), 303-320. doi: 10.1080/13604810802479126
Hollands, R. G. (2015). Critical interventions into the corporate smart city. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8(1), 61-77.
Kingsley, P. (2013). Masdar: the shifting goalposts of Abu Dhabi's ambitious eco-city. Retrieved from http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2013/12/features/reality-hits-masdar
Kitchin, R. (2014). The real-time city? Big data and smart urbanism. GeoJournal, 79(1), 1-14.
Kitchin, R. (2015). Making sense of smart cities: addressing present shortcomings. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, rsu027.
Komninos, N. (2011). Intelligent cities: Variable geometries of spatial intelligence. Intelligent Buildings International, 3(3), 172-188. doi: 10.1080/17508975.2011.579339
Konza City Official Website (2014). Retrieved from http://www.konzacity.go.ke/
Lee, J., & Oh, J. (2008). New Songdo City and the Values of Flexibility: A Case Study of Implementaion and Analysis of a Mega-Scale Project. Master of Science in Real Estate Development, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/58657/317296469.pdf
Living Planit SA Official Website (2013). Retrieved from http://www.living-planit.com
Luque-Ayala, A., & Marvin, S. (2015). Developing a critical understanding of smart urbanism? Urban Studies, 52(12), 2105- 2116.
March, H., & Ribera-Fumaz, R. (2016). Smart contradictions: The politics of making Barcelona a Self-sufficient city. European Urban and Regional Studies, 23(4), 816-830.
Marvin, S., & Luque-Ayala, A. (2013). Smart urbanism: Utopian vision or false dawn? Routledge. Masdar City Official Website. (2013). Masdar City. Retrieved from http://masdarcity.ae/en/
Meijer, A., & Bolívar, M. P. R. (2016). Governing the smart city: a review of the literature on smart urban governance. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 82(2), 392-408.
Mosannenzadeh, F., & Vettorato, D. (2014). Defining smart city. A conceptual framework based on keyword analysis. TeMA. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, Special Issue: Eighth International Conference INPUT. Smart City - Planning for Energy, Transportation and Sustainability of the Urban System, Naples, 4-6 June 2014, 683-694.
Mutegi, L. (2014). Kenya: "Sillicon Savannah" Set to Take Much Longer Time. Retrieved from http://allafrica.com/stories/201402040194.html
Neirotti, P., De Marco, A., Cagliano, A. C., Mangano, G., & Scorrano, F. (2014). Current trends in Smart City initiatives: Some stylised facts. Cities, 38, 25-36.
Nordin, R. (2012). Creating Knowledge - Based Clusters Through Urban Development: A study of Cyberjaya, MSC Malaysia. Doctoral Thesis, Rheinischen Friedrich - Wilhelms - Universität, Bonn. Retrieved from http://hss.ulb.uni- bonn.de/2012/2973/2973.pdf
O’Neil, D. (2013). Building a smarter Chicago. In B. Goldstein & L. Dyson (Eds.), Beyond transparency: Open data and thefuture of civic innovation (pp. 27-38). San Francisco, CA: Code for America Press.
Ojo, A., Curry, E., & Janowski, T. (2014). Designing Next Generation Smart City Initiatives-Harnessing Findings And Lessons From A Study Of Ten Smart City Programs. 22nd European Conference on Information Systems, 9-11 June, Tel Aviv.
Papa, R., Garguilo, C., & Galderisi, A. (2013). Towards an urban planners' perspective on smart city. TeMA. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment (1), 5-17. doi: 10.6092/1970-9870/1536
Papa, R., Galderisi, A., Majello, V., Cristina, M., & Saretta, E. (2015). Smart and resilient cities. A systemic approach for developing cross-sectoral strategies in the face of climate change. TeMA. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 8 (1), 19-49. doi: 10.6092/1970-9870/2883
Pierce, P., & Andersson, B. (2017). Challenges with smart cities initiatives–A municipal decision makers’ perspective. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Rio De Janeiro Centre of Operations Official Website (2014). Centro de Operações Rio, Prefeitura do Rio (in Portuguese). Retrieved from http://www.centrodeoperacoes.rio.gov.br/
Salvati, L., Morelli, V. G., Weijnen, M., Bueren, E. v., Wenzler, I., & Reuver, M. D. (2013). Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities? TeMA. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, (1), 73-86. doi: 10.6092/1970-9870/1496
Shwayri, S. T. (2013). A Model Korean Ubiquitous Eco-City? The Politics of Making Songdo. Journal of Urban Technology, 20(1), 39-55. doi: 10.1080/10630732.2012.735409
Smart Chicago Official Webpage (2014). Retrieved from http://www.smartchicagocollaborative.org/
Songdo IBD Official Website (2013). Songdo IBD Retrieved from http://www.songdo.com/
Stockholm Smart City Official Website (2014). Retrieved from http://international.stockholm.se
Townsend, A. (2013). Smart cities: Big data, civic hackers, and the quest for a new utopia. New York, London: WW Norton & Company.
Van Den Bergh, J., & Viaene, S. (2015). Key challenges for the smart city: Turning ambition into reality. Paper presented at the 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
Van Zoonen, L. (2016). Privacy concerns in smart cities. Government Information Quarterly, 33(3), 472-480. doi: 10.1016/j.giq.2016.06.004
Vanolo, A. (2016). Is there anybody out there? The place and role of citizens in tomorrow’s smart cities. Futures, 82, 26-36. doi: 10.1016/j.futures.2016.05.010
Watson, V. (2013). African urban fantasies: dreams or nightmares? Environment and Urbanization, 6. doi: 10.1177/0956247813513705
Yigitcanlar, T., & Ho Lee, S. (2014). Korean ubiquitous-eco-city: A smart-sustainable urban form or a branding hoax? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 89, 100-114. doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2013.08.034
Yusof, N. (2008). Cyberjaya: The making of a high-tech city. Doctoral Thesis, Nottingham Trent University.
Zubizarreta, I., Seravalli, A., & Arrizabalaga, S. (2015). Smart city concept: What it is and what it should be. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 142(1). doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000282
Copyright (c) 2017 Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following:
1. Authors retain the rights to their work and give in to the journal the right of first publication of the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License - Attribution that allows others to share the work indicating the authorship and the initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors can adhere to other agreements of non-exclusive license for the distribution of the published version of the work (ex. To deposit it in an institutional repository or to publish it in a monography), provided to indicate that the document was first published in this journal.
3. Authors can distribute their work online (ex. In institutional repositories or in their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and it can increase the quotations of the published work (See The Effect of Open Access)