Mega-Event Organization Considering Safety, Security and Resilience
Insights from the Milan World Expo 2015 and London Olympic and Paralympic Games 2012
Cities become globally significant and attract national and international interest from all over the world with the help of mega-events, such as World EXPO and the Olympic Games. Mega-events highly require the involvement of various actors working together for the same overall purpose, although these actors have the responsibility of diverse target groups and require to use different resources. In his paper, we aim to understand the role of organizations in mega-events in relation to the socio-technical systems they operate. We consider security, safety and resilience articulated in six areas: planning, construction of the site, training, collaboration, communication and legacy, in three different time slots: before, during and after the event. Results include insights to enhance multi-organizational culture-based practice. The field studies conducted in Milan in 2015 and 2016 on Milan World EXPO 2015, and in London in 2012 and 2016 on the London Olympic and Paralympic Games 2012. The research findings are based on the experience of the real actors involved in these two events. The findings suggest several courses of action for decision-makers and emergency planners to safety and security design strategies that can facilitate resilience as a legacy of a mega-event.
Brent Ritchie, J.R. (1984). Assessing the impact of hallmark events: Conceptual and research issues. Journal of travel research, 23(1), 2-11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/004728758402300101
Burbank, M., Andranovich, G., & Heying, C.H. (2001). Olympic dreams: The impact of mega-events on local politics. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Burton, R. (2003). Olympic Games host city marketing: An exploration of expectations and outcomes. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 12(1), 37-47.
Cashman, R. (2006). The bitter-sweet awakening: The legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Basingstoke, Pan Macmillan.
Chalip, L., & Leyns, A. (2002). Local business leveraging of a sport event: Managing an event for economic benefit. Journal of Sport Management, 16(2), 132-158. doi: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.16.2.132
Coaffee, J., & Fussey, P. (2012). Securing the Games. In: V. Girginov (Ed.), Handbook of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: Volume One: Making the Games. London: Routledge.
CSL 2012 (2011). Game Changing? (Annual Review 2010). Commission for a Sustainable London 2012. London.
Coaffee, J., & Johnston, L. (2007). Accommodating the Spectacle. In: J.R. Gold, M.M. Gold (Eds.), Olympic Cities: Urban Planning, City Agendas and the World’s Games, 1896 to the present. 138-149. London: Routledge.
De Steffani, A. (2011). A la carte urban policies. Mega-events: from exceptionality to construction of ordinary planning practices. A look at Italy: Case study of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Turin. Science Future of Lithuania, 3(3), 23-29. doi: https://doi.org/10.3846/mla.2011.047
Edizel, Ö. (2014). Governance of sustainable event-led regeneration: the case of London 2012 Olympics. Draft. Doctoral dissertation.
Edizel, Ö. (2013). Mega-events as a place marketing strategy in entrepreneurial cities: İzmir's EXPO 2015 candidacy as a roadmap for hosting EXPO 2020. Town Planning Review, 84(5), 633-657. 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.3828/tpr.2013.33.
EDUCEN Project Deliverable 7.5, by Atun, F. and Menoni, S., (2017). Mega-event (Milan-EXPO) Case Study Manuel, EDUCEN Project: European Disasters in Urban centres: a Culture Expert Network (3C – Cities, Cultures, Catastrophes).
Expo S.p.A. (2015). Sustainability Report Expo Milano 2015. Available at: http://www.expo2015.org/cs/Expo/1398464093530/Sustainability+Report13+ENG+- +Expo2015+SpA.pdf
Essex, S., & Chalkley, B. (1998). Olympic Games: catalyst of urban change. Leisure studies, 17(3), 187-206. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/026143698375123
Evans, G. (2011). London 2012. In: J.R. Gold, M.M. Gold (Eds.), Olympic Cities: City Agendas, Planning, and the World’s Games, 1896 to 2012 (Planning, History and Environment). 2nd edition. 359-389. London: Routledge.
Evans, G., & Edizel, Ö. (2016). London 2012. In J.R. Gold, MM. Gold (Eds), Olympic Cities: City Agendas, Planning, and the World’s Games, 1896 to 2016 (Planning, History and Environment). 3rd edition. London: Routledge.
Fussey, P. (2015). Command, control and contestation: negotiating security at the London 2012 Olympics. The Geographical Journal, 181(3), 212-223. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/geoj.12058
Fussey, P., Coaffee, J., Armstrong, G., & Hobbs, D. (2011). Securing and sustaining the Olympic city: reconfiguring London for 2012 and beyond. Farnham: Ashgate
Galderisi, A. (2008). Mega events and mobility: the impacts on the quality of the urban environment. TEMA Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 1(2), 7-20. doi: https://doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/36
Gastaldi, F., & Camerin, F. (2018). Transformaciones urbanas y grandes eventos en Italia y España a partir de 1992. Ciudad y Territorio. Estudios territoriales, 196, 201-216.
Getz, D. (1991). Festivals, Special Events, and Tourism. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Girginov, V. (2012). Governance of the London 2012 Olympic Games legacy. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 47(5), 543-558. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690211413966
Gold, J.R., & Gold, M.M. (2005). Cities of culture: staging international festivals and the urban agenda, 1851-2000. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.
Gratton, C., & Henry, I.P. (2001). Sport in the city: the role of sport in economic and social regeneration. London: Routledge.
Gregory, F. (2012). Chapter 11 - The European Union and the promotion of major event security within the EU area. Routledge Online Studies on the Olympic and Paralympic Games. 1, 208-226. doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/ 978020383 5227_chapter_11.
House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts (2007). The Ninth Report of Session 2006-2007- Preparations for the Olympic and Paralympic games - risk assessment and management. London: The Stationery Office Limited.
Jago, L.K., & Shaw, R.N. (1998). Special events: A conceptual and definitional framework. Festival Management and Event Tourism. 5(1), 21-32.
Julier, G. (2000). The Culture of Design, London: Sage.
Kroeber, A.L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Papers. Peabody Museum of Archaeology & Ethnology, Harvard University. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Print Office.
Mazzeo, G. (2008). Great events: indicators for classification and their impact on the urban systems. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 1(2). 77-86. doi: https://doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/37
Misener, L., & Mason, D.S. (2006). Creating community networks: Can sporting events offer meaningful sources of social capital? Managing Leisure, 11(1), 39-56. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13606710500445676
Mohan, G., & Mohan, J. (2002). Placing social capital. Progress in human geography, 26(2), 191-210. doi: https://doi.org/10.1191/0309132502ph364ra
Monclus, J.F. (2011). Barcelona 1992. In: J.R. Gold, M.M. Gold (Eds.), Olympic Cities: City Agendas, Planning and the World’s Games, 1896-2012. 2nd edition. 268-286. London: Routledge.
Norton, J., Atun, F., & Dandoulaki, M., (2015). Exploring issues limiting the use of knowledge in disaster risk reduction. TeMA Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, Special Issue ECCA Conference. 135-154. doi: https://doi.org/ 10.6092/1970-9870/3032
Office for National Statistics (2012). Overseas Travel and Tourism. August 2012. London: ONS.
Parker, O., Rainey, S. (2012). How the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee will affect UK tourism [WWW Document]. The Telegraph. URL http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/the_queens_diamond_jubilee/9239380/Ho w-the-Queens-Diamond-Jubilee-will-affect-UK-tourism.html (accessed 8.10.13).
Pitts, A., & Liao, H. (2009). Sustainable Olympic design and urban development. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
Poynter, G., & MacRury, I. (Eds.) (2009). Olympic cities: 2012 and the remaking of London. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.
Prefettura di Milano (2015). La prefettura al Centro Operativo Misto, 184 giorni. Viaggio dentro EXPO. Milano: Protezione Civile, COM, Ufficio Comunicazione. Draft. In Italian.
Raine, R. (2012). Managing the security challenge, presented at the Olympic and Paralympic Security Conference, Royal United Services Institute, Whitehall, 25 January.
Richards, G. (1996). Cultural tourism in Europe. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Richards, G., & Palmer, R. (2010). Eventful Cities: Cultural management and urban revitalisation. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Roche, M. (2000). Mega-events and modernity: Olympics and expos in the growth of global culture. London: Routledge.
Sassen, S. (1991). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Smith, A. (2013). “De-Risking” East London: Olympic Regeneration Planning 2000-2012. European Planning Studies. 22(9), 1-21. doi: 10.1080/09654313.2013.812065
Smith, A. (2012). Events and Urban Regeneration: The Strategic Use of Events to Revitalise Cities. London: Routledge.
Smith, A., Stevenson, N., & Edmundson, T. (2011). The 2012 Games: The regeneration legacy. London: RICS.
Copyright (c) 2019 TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following:
1. Authors retain the rights to their work and give in to the journal the right of first publication of the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License - Attribution that allows others to share the work indicating the authorship and the initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors can adhere to other agreements of non-exclusive license for the distribution of the published version of the work (ex. To deposit it in an institutional repository or to publish it in a monography), provided to indicate that the document was first published in this journal.
3. Authors can distribute their work online (ex. In institutional repositories or in their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and it can increase the quotations of the published work (See The Effect of Open Access)