The paradigms of urban planning to emergency-proof

Rethinking the organisation of settlements at the time of a pandemic

Keywords: Covid-19, Urban planning, Paradgims, Settlments, Social distancing


Urban planning is one of the sectors that is able to provide a contribution to the definition of a desirable scenario for the future of the city and the territory as it deals with the physical and functional organisation of human settlements, more than others, also for reasons related to its historical origin.

The paradigms now acquired from a disciplinary point of view, such as densification, sustainable mobility, mixitè, urban green, etc., raise the issue of compatibility with the needs of social distancing imposed by the health emergency.

One wonders if and how the principles and criteria for the physical and functional organisation of settlements, which inform and substantiate the technical-scientific documents and the spatial and urban planning instruments themselves, will change.

The response confirms the overall goodness of the organisational model shared by the community of urban planners. This can only be a stimulus to continue the research and application activities in the field with even greater commitment and determination.

The crisis must in any case build an opportunity to rethink the functioning of the city, its spaces, its times and its forms of social and economic interaction, as we imagine will happen in all other fields


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Isidoro Fasolino, Department of Civil Engineering University of Salerno

Engineer. He is an associate professor in Urban Planning Techniques with a PhD in the same field, he teaches Urban Planning and the Fundamentals of Urban Engineering at the University of Salerno. He is the author of articles, essays and books on these subjects. He is an effective member of the Board of Directors, both in Campania and in Italy and of the National Institute of Urban Planning (INU).

Michele Grimaldi, Department of Civil Engineering University of Salerno

Engineer. He has a PhD in Civil Engineering for the Environment and the Territory and is contract lecturer at the University of Salerno teaching the courses on the Analysis of urban and territorial systems and Elements of Territorial and Environmental Planning. He is the author of articles, essays and books on these subjects. He is an effective member and secretary of the Campania Section of the National Institute of Urban Planning (INU).

Francesca Coppola, Department of Civil Engineering University of Salerno

Engineer. She is a PhD student researching Risk and Sustainability in Civil, Building and Environmental Engineering Systems at the University of Salerno and she is an expert in the field of Urban Planning Techniques. She is a member of the National Institute of Urban Planning (INU).



Acuto, M. (2020). COVID-19: Lessons for an Urban(izing) World, One Earth, 2(4), 317-319.

Bauman, Z. (1999). La società dell’incertezza. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Bauman, Z. (2006). Liquid Fear. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Beck, U. (1986). Risikogesellschaft: Auf dem Weg in eine andere Moderne. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

Benevolo, L. (1963). Le origini dell’urbanistica moderna. Bari: Laterza.

Bonfiglioli, S. (a cura di) (1994). Il piano degli orari. Milano: FrancoAngeli.

Boschma, R. (2005). Role of Proximity in Interaction and Performance: Conceptual and Empirical Challenges. Regional Studies, 39(1), 41–45.

Choay, F. (1965). L’urbanisme. Utopie et réalité. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.

Coccia, M. (2020). Factors determining the diffusion of COVID-19 and suggested strategy to prevent future accelerated viral infectivity similar to COVID, Science of The Total Environment, 729.

Connolly, C., Keil, R. & Ali, S.H. (2020). Extended urbanisation and the spatialities of infectious disease: Demographic change, infrastructure and governance, Urban Studies.

Conticini, E., Frediani, B. & Caro, D. (2020). Can atmospheric pollution be considered a co-factor in extremely high level of SARS-CoV-2 lethality in Northern Italy?, Environmental Pollution, 261.

Davis, M. (1998). Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster. New York: Picador.

Dittmar, H. & Ohland, G. (2004). The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit oriented Development. Washington: Island Press.

Duhl, L.J. & Sanchez, A.K. (1999). Healthy cities and the city planning process: a background document on links between health and urban planning. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. Retrieved from:

EC ‒ European Commission (2007). Towards a green infrastructure for Europe - Developing new concepts for integration of Natura 2000 network into a broader countryside, EC study ENV.B.2/ SER/2007/0076. Retrieved from:

EC ‒ European Commission (2012). Guidelines on best practice to limit, mitigate or compensate soil sealing. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Ernesti, G. (1990). Riflessioni su una ipotesi di storia urbanistica. In G. Ernesti (a cura di). Il piano regolatore generale: esperienze, metodi, problemi. Alcune tendenze a confronto. Milano: FrancoAngeli.

Fasolino, I. (2015). Scenari per il governo del territorio e la sostenibilità insediativa. EyesReg, 5(3). Retrieved from

Fasolino, I., Coppola, F. & Grimaldi, M. (2018). La sicurezza urbana degli insediamenti. Azioni e tecniche per il piano urbanistico. Milano: FrancoAngeli.

Fasolino, I., Grimaldi, M., Zarra, T. & Naddeo, V. (2016a). Implementation of Integrated Nuisances Action Plan, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 54, 19-24.

Fasolino, I., Grimaldi, M., Zarra, T. & Naddeo, V. (2016b). Odour control strategies for a sustainable nuisances’ action plan, Global NEST Journal, 4, 734-741.

Fattorini, D. & Regoli, F. (2020). Role of the chronic air pollution levels in the Covid-19 outbreak risk in Italy, Environment Pollution, 264.

Gehl, J. (1980). Livet mellem husen. Copenhagen: Arkitektens Forlag.

Gehl, J. (2010). Cities for People. Washington: Island Press.

Giddens, A. (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. London: Polity.

Hall, P. (1996). Cities of Tomorrow. Oxford: Blackwell.

Institute of Medicine (2001). Rebuilding the Unity of Health and the Environment: A New Vision of Environmental Health for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2019). 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. In E. Field, Calvo Buendia, K. Tanabe, A. Kranjc, J. Baasansuren, M. Fukuda, S. Ngarize, A. Osako, Y. Pyrozhenko, P. Shermanau, & S. Federici (Eds.). Switzerland: IPCC. Retrieved from

ISTAT - Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (2011). 15° Censimento generale della popolazione e delle abitazioni, Struttura demografica della popolazione. Dati definitivi. Retrieved from (ultimo accesso 5.6.2020)

ISTAT - Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (2020). Spazi in casa e disponibilità di computer per bambini e ragazzi. Retrieved from:

Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House.

Jobbagy, E.G. & Jackson, R.B. (2000). The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation, Ecological Applications, 10, 423-436.[0423:TVDOSO]2.0.CO;2

Knowles, R.D. (2012). Transit Oriented Development in Copenhagen, Denmark: from the Finger Plan to Orestad, Journal of Transport Geography, 22, 251-261.

La Cecla, F. (2014). Contro l’urbanistica. Torino: Einaudi.

Lal, R. (2004). Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security, Science, 304, 1623-1627.

Mareggi, M. (2000). Le politiche temporali urbane in Italia. Firenze: Alinea.

MEA ‒ Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2003). Ecosystems and human well-being: A framework for assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press. Retrieved from:

Meerow, S. & Newell, J.P. (2017). Spatial planning for multifunctional green infrastructure: Growing resilience in Detroit, Landscape and Urban Planning, 159, 62–75.

Mumford, L. (1961). The city in history: Its origins, its transformations, and its prospects. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Naumann, S., Anzaldua, G., Berry, P., Burch, S., Davis, M.K., Frelih-Larsen, A., Gerders, H. & Sanders, M. (2011). Assessment of the potential of ecosystem-based approach to climate change adaptation and mitigation in Europe. Final report to the European Commission, DG Environment, Contract no. 070307/2010/580412/SER/B2, Ecological Institute and Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University Centre for the Environment. Retrieved from:

RUR – Rete urbana delle rappresentanze (2012). Cittaslow: dall’Italia al mondo la rete internazionale delle Città del buon vivere - Cittaslow: from Italy to the world international network of Cities Where Living is Easy. Milano: FrancoAngeli.

Sica, P. (1981). Antologia di urbanistica. Dal Settecento a oggi. Bari: Laterza.

UNISDR ‒ United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2009). UNISDR Terminology for Disaster Reduztion. Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from:

Verne, J. (1879). Les 500 millions de la Bégum. Paris: Hetzel.

Zhu, Y., Xie, J., Huang, F. & Cao, L. (2020). Association between short-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 infection: Evidence from China, Science of The Total Environment, 727.

How to Cite
Fasolino, I., Grimaldi, M., & Coppola, F. (2020). The paradigms of urban planning to emergency-proof. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 165-178.
Special Issue - Covid-19 vs City-20