Logistic models explaining the determinants of biking for commute and non-commute trips in Lahore, Pakistan

  • Houshmand Masoumi Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2843-4890
  • Muhammad Asim Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore
  • Izza Anwer Department of Transportation Engineering and Management, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore
  • S. Atif Bilal Aslam Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore
Keywords: Cycling, active transportation, sustainable mobility, human perceptions, Pakistan


The determinants of biking behaviour are less studied in a wide range of developing countries including South Asia. This study takes Lahore, Pakistan as a case-study city to explore the factors defining commute and non-commute bike trips as well as commuting by bike. These issues were analysed by collecting data from 379 subjects accommodating in three socio-economic statuses (lower, medium, and higher) in Lahore in spring 2018. The data were analysed by applying multinomial logistic regression for investigating biking frequency and binomial logistic regression for examining commuting by bike. The results show that gender, age, education, income, purpose of majority of trips, preferred distance to travel using cycle, preferred time to travel using cycle, and preferred bike trip purpose are significantly correlated with biking frequency. The significant determinants of bicycle commuting included categories of education, the purpose of the majority of trips, using bike in combination with other modes, preferred distance to bike, preferred biking time, and preferred bike trip purpose are associated with bicycle commuting. Commuting by bike is more popular in socio-economically weaker neighbourhoods. The discussion of this study shows that the determinants of biking in the sample in Lahore are different from those that have already been addressed by studies undertaken in high-income countries.  


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Author Biographies

Houshmand Masoumi, Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin

He is senior researcher at Center for Technology and Society of Technische Universität Berlin, Germany and Visiting Associate Professor at University of Johannesburg, South Africa. His research insterests include statistical modeling of urban travel behavior, land use - transportation interactions, urban sprawl and travel behavior, and the travel behavior analysis of special demographic and age groups.

Muhammad Asim, Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore

He is an urban and regional planner, PhD in Urban Engineering, assistant professor at the University of Engineering and Technology in City and Regional Planning Department, where he teaches urban land management, Disaster Management and Estate Management. His research interest deal with the study of socio-economic disparities in growing regions, vulnerability assessment and climate change adaptation.

Izza Anwer, Department of Transportation Engineering and Management, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore

She is transport engineer and is Assistant Professor in the Department of transportation engineering and management, faculty of Civil engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan. She holds a PhD in the field of Intelligent transport system technologies integrated with transport systems and disasters from Institute for transport studies, University of Leeds, UK. Her research interests include Intelligent transport systems, disasters, community building, urban planning, multi-modal transport planning and engineering and multiple data analysis techniques.

S. Atif Bilal Aslam, Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore

He is Assistant Professor in the Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan. He holds PhD in urban development planning from Technical University of Dortmund, Germany. His main scientific interests include urban planning, urban mobility, sustainable development and international migration.


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How to Cite
MasoumiH., AsimM., AnwerI., & AslamS. A. B. (2020). Logistic models explaining the determinants of biking for commute and non-commute trips in Lahore, Pakistan. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 13(3), 291-308. https://doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/6983