Causes of residential mobility and Turkey practice
Residential mobility is an economic and social recovery process that determines urban growth and regional development. The urban population relocates due to the events in their lives or their dissatisfaction with the conditions. Such individual movements play a role in the construction of urban geography. The aim of the present study was to discuss the factors that affect the residential mobility in Ortahisar district in Trabzon, Turkey. To determine the mobility, a survey was conducted with 445 individuals in 11 neighborhoods with different socio-demographic, economic and physical attributes in Trabzon urban center. The survey findings were analyzed based on a) the analysis of the socio-demographic structure of households, b) evaluation of the residential buildings, c) the analysis of historical mobility, and d) the assessments of causality in mobility. In the study, the causal factors were analyzed based on the life cycle, life course and satisfaction approaches and mobility classification available in the literature, and the study findings were analyzed with descriptive statistics. It was determined that residential ownership, the structure of the household members, and proximity to the workplace factors were effective on residential mobility in Trabzon.
Alkay, E. (2011). The Residential Mobility Pattern in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area, Housing Studies, 26 (4), 521–539. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2011.559752.
Alkay, E. (2011b). In Depth Analysis of the Home to Work Travel Pattern in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area, 51th European Congress of the Regional Science Association International 30 August – 3 September 2011, Barcelona, Spain.
Bach, R. L. & Smith, J. (1977). Community Satisfaction, Expectations of Moving and Migration. Demography, 14(2), 147-167.
Baker, E. (2003). Public Housing Tenant Relocation: Residental Mobility, Satisfaction and the Development of A Tenant’s Spatial Decision Support System, Ph.Doc.Thesis, The Adelaide University Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, Adelaide, Australia.
Brazil, N., & Clark, W. A. (2019). Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Inequality During the Transition to Adulthood. Urban Geography, 40(7), 938-963. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2018.1506614.
Basolo, V. & Yerena, A. (2017). Residential Mobility of Low-income, Subsidized Households: A Synthesis of Explanatory Frameworks. Housing Studies, 32(6), 841-862. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2016.1240762.
Boehm, T. P., Herzog Jr, H. W. & Schlottmann, A. M. (1991). Intra-urban Mobility, Migration and Tenure Choice. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 59-68.
Böheim, R., & Taylor, M. (1999). Residential mobility, housing tenure and the labour market in Britain. Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex.
Brown, L. A. & Holmes, J., (1971). “Intraurban Migrant Lifelines: A Spatial View”, Demography, 8 (1), 103-122.
Brown, L. & Moore, E. (1970). The İntra-Urban Migration Process: A Perspective. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 52 (1), 1-13.
Cadwallader, M. (1992). Migration and residential mobility: macro and mcro approaches. Univ of Wisconsin Press.
Chevan, A. (1971). Family Growth, Household Density and Moving. Demography, 8(4), 451-458.
Clark, W. A. (1982). Recent Research on Migration and Mobility: A Review and İnterpretation. Progress in Planning, 18, 1-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-9006(82)90002-2.
Clark, W. A. V. (2007). Race, Class and Place, Evaluating Mobility Outcomes for African Americans, Urban Affairs Review, 42 (3), 295-314. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087406292531.
Clark, W. A. V. (2009). Changing Residential Preferences across Income, Education and Age. Findings from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality, Urban Affairs Review, 44 (3), 334-355 https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087408321497
Clark, W. A. (2013). Life Course Events and Residential Change: Unpacking Age Effects on the Probability of Moving. Journal of Population Research, 30(4), 319-334. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12546-013-9116-y
Clark, W. A. V. (2017). Residential Mobility in Context: Interpreting Behavior in the Housing Market, Revista de Sociologia, 102 (4), 575-605. https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/papers.2411
Clark, W. A. V., Deurloo, M. C. & Dieleman, F. M. (2006). Residential Mobility and Neighbourhood Outcomes, Housing Studies, 21, (3), 323–342. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673030600585946
Clark, W. A., and Mulder, C. H. (2000). Leaving Home and Entering the Housing Market. Environment and Planning A, 32(9), 1657-1671. https://doi.org/10.1068/a3315
Clark, W. A., & Withers, S. D. (2007). Family Migration and Mobility Sequences in the United States: Spatial Mobility in the Context of the Life Course. Demographic Research, 17, 591-622.
Clark, W.A.V. & Drever, A., (2000). “Residential Mobility in a Constrained Housing Market: Implications for Ethnic Populations in Germany”, Environment and Planning A, 32 (5), 833 – 846. https://doi.org/10.1068/a3222
Clark, W.A.V. & Huang, Y. (2003). The Life Course and Residential Mobility in British Housing Markets, Environment and Planning A, 35 (2), 323 – 339. https://doi.org/10.1068/a3542
Clark, W. A. V. & Huang, Y. (2004). Linking Migration and Mobility: Individual and Contextual Effects in British Housing Markets. Regional Studies, 38 (6), 617-628. https://doi.org/10.1080/003434042000240932
Clark, W.A.V. & Onaka, J. L., (1983). Life Cycle and Housing Adjustment as Explanations of Residential Mobility, Urban Studies, 20 (1), 47-57. https://doi.org/10.1080/713703176
Clark, W.A.V., Deurloo, M.C. & Dieleman, F.M. (1984). Housing Consumption and Residential Mobility. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 74(1), 29-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1984.tb01432.x
Clark, W.A.V. & Dieleman, F.M. (1996). Households and housing: choice and outcomes, in the housing market. New Brunswick, N.J.: Center For Urban Policy Research.
Coulter, R. & Ham, M. (2013). Following People through Time: An Analysis of Individual Residential Mobility Biographies, Housing Studies, 28 (7), 1037-1055. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2013.783903
Coulton, C., Thedos, B. & Turner, M. A. (2012). Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Change: Real Neighborhoods Under the Microscope, Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 14 (3), 55-90
Dieleman, F. M. (2001). Modelling Residential Mobility; A Review of Recent Trends in Research, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 16, 249–265.
Duncan, G. J., & Newman, S. J. (2007). Expected and Actual Residential Mobility. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 42(2), 174-186. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944367608977718
Earhart, C.C. & Weber, M.J. (1996). Attachment to Home: A Contributing Factor to Models of Residential Mobility Intentions, Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 24 (4), 422-437. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077727X960244007
Eceral, T. & Uğurlar, A. 2017. Hanehalkı Konut Hareketliliğini Etkileyen Faktörler: Ankara Örneği, Journal of Planning, 27 (3), 347-361. doi: 10.14744/planlama.2017.83007
Elder, G. H., Johnson, M. K., & Crosnoe, R. (2003). The emergence and development of life course theory. In Handbook of the Life Course, 3-19. Springer, Boston, MA.
Fattah, H. A., Salleh, A. G., Badarulzaman, N., & Ali, K. (2015). Factors Affecting Residential Mobility among Households in Penang, Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 170, 516-526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.077
Feijten, P. & Van Ham, M., (2009). Neighbourhood Change... Reason to Leave?. Urban Studies, 46(10), 2103–2122. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098009339430
Gaglione, F., Gargiulo, C., & Zucaro, F. (2019). Elders’ Quality of Life. A Method to Optimize Pedestrian Accessibility to Urban Services. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 12(3), 295-312. https://doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/6272
Geist, C. & Mcmanus, P. A. (2008). Geographical Mobility over the Life-Course: Motivations and Implications, Population Space Place, 14, 283-303. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.508
Van Gent, W., Das, M., & Musterd, S. (2019). Sociocultural, Economic and Ethnic Homogeneity in Residential Mobility and Spatial Sorting among Couples. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 51(4), 891-912. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X18823754
Greenlee, A. J. (2019). Assessing the Intersection of Neighborhood Change and Residential MobilityP for the Chicago Metropolitan Area (2006–2015). Housing Policy Debate, 29(1), 186-212. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2018.1476898
Haque, M. B., Choudhury, C., Hess, S., & dit Sourd, R. C. (2019). Modelling Residential Mobility Decision and Its Impact on Car Ownership and Travel Mode. Travel Behaviour and Society, 17, 104-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2019.07.005
Ham, M. V. & Clark, W. (2009). Neighbourhood Mobility Context: Household Moves and Changing Neighbourhoods in the Netherlands, Environment and Planning A, 41(6), 1442 – 1459. https://doi.org/10.1068/a4182
Hanushek, E.A. & Quigley, J.M. (1978). An Explicit Model of Intra-Metropolitan Mobility, Land Economics, 54 (4), 411-429.
Huang, Y. & Deng, F. F. (2006). Residential Mobility in Chinese Cities: A Longitudinal Analysis, Housing Studies, 21 (5), 625–652. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673030600807084
Jones, A., & Dantzler, P. (2020). Neighborhood Perceptions and Residential Mobility. Urban Studies, 0042098020916440. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098020916440
Kamruzzaman, M., De Vos, J., Currie, G., Giles-Corti, B., & Turrell, G. (2020). Spatial Biases in Residential Mobility: Implications for Travel Behavior Research. Travel Behavior and Society, 18, 15-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2019.09.001
Kalelioğlu, R. & Özgür, M. (2013). İkametgâh Memnuniyeti Bağlamında Konut Yeri Seçimi and İkametgâh Hareketliliği: Bolu Kenti Örneği, Turkish Journal of Geographical Sciences, 11 (2), 149-168. https://doi.org/10.1501/Cogbil_0000000147
Kooiman, N. (2020). Residential Mobility of Couples Around Family Formation in the Netherlands: Stated and Revealed Preferences. Population, Space and Place, e2367. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2367
Kamacı E. (2012). Re-Reading Urbanization Experience of Istanbul; Through Changing Residential Mobility Behaviour of Households, ODTÜ, Ph.Doc.Thesis, Ankara.
Kamacı, E. (2013). Kent-İçi Hareketlilik ve Sosyo-Mekânsal Değişim: 2000 Yılı İstanbul’una Bakış, Artium, 2 (1), 1–15.
Kan, K. (1999). Expected And Unexpected Residential Mobility, Journal of Urban Economics, 45, 72-96. https://doi.org/10.1006/juec.1998.2082
Kan, K. (2007). Residential Mobility and Social Capital, Journal of Urban Economics, 61(3), 436-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2006.07.005
Kocatürk, F. & Bölen, F. (2005). Kayseri’de Konut Alanı Yer Seçimi ve Hanehalkı Hareketliliği, ITU / A Architecture, Planning, Design, 4 (2), 17-24
Landale, N.S. & Guest, A.M., (1985). Constraınts, Satısfactıon and Resıdentıal Mobılıty: Speare's Model Reconsıdered, Demography, 22, 2.
Lei, L., & South, S. J. (2020). The Comforts of Home: The Association Between Coresidence with Parents and Young Adults' Residential Mobility and Migration in the United States. Population, Space and Place, e2323. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2323
Lı, S. M. (2003). Housing Tenure and Residential Mobility in Urban China, A Study of Commodity Housing Development in Beijing and Guangzhou, Urban Affairs Review, 510-534. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087402250360
Li, S. M., & Mao, S. (2019). The Spatial Pattern of Residential Mobility in Guangzhou, China. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 43(5), 963-982. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12625
Li, S. & Sui, Y. (2001). Residential Mobility and Urban Restructuring under Market Transition: A Study of Guangzhou, China. Professional Geographer, 53(2), 219-229. https://doi.org/10.1111/0033-0124.00281
Liu, Z., Wang, Y., & Tao, R. (2013). Social Capital and Migrant Housing Experiences in Urban China: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis. Housing Studies, 28(8), 1155-1174. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2013.818620
Loikkanen, H. A. (1992). Housing Demand and Tenure Choice: Evidence from Finland. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 7(1), 9-30.
Molin, E., Oppewal, H., & Timmermans, H. (1996). Predicting Consumer Response to New Housing: A Stated Choice Experiment. Netherlands Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 11(3), 297-311.
Morris, T. (2017). Examining the Influence of Major Life Events as Drivers of Residential Mobility and Neighbourhood Transitions, Demographic Research, 36, 1015-1038.
Özgür, M. (2009). İkametgâh Memnuniyeti ve Şehir İçi İkametgâh Hareketliliği, Coğrafi Bilimler Dergisi, 7 (2), 111- 127.
Özyıldırım, S., Önder, Z., & Yavas, A. (2005). Mobility and Optimal Tenure Choice. Journal of Housing Economics, 14(4), 336-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhe.2005.09.002
Parida, J. K., & Madheswaran, S. (2010). Spatial Heterogeneity and Population Mobility in India. Institute for Social and Economic Change. ISBN 81-7791-190-2
Patel, A., Joseph, G., Killemsetty, N., & Eng, S. (2020). Effects of Residential Mobility and Migration on Standards of Living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A life-Course Approach. PloS One, 15(9), e0239735. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239735
Pickvance, C. G. (1974). Life Cycle, Housing Tenure and Residential Mobility: A Path Analytic Approach. Urban Studies, 11, 171-188. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420987420080331
Rabe, B. & Taylor, M. (2010). Residential Mobility, Quality of Neighbourhood and Life Course Events. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A, 173(3), 531-555. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-985X.2009.00626.x
Ren, H. & Folmer, H. (2017). Determinants of Residential Satisfaction in Urban China: A Multi-Group Structural Equation Analysis. Urban Studies, 54(6), 1407-1425. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098015627112
Rossi, P. H. (1955). Why Families Move, A study in the social psychology of urban residential mobility. New York: The Free Press.
Saghapour, T., & Moridpour, S. (2019). The Role of Neighbourhoods Accessibility in Residential Mobility. Cities, 87, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2018.12.022
Sanchez, A. C., & Andrews, D. (2011). Residential Mobility and Public Policy in OECD Countries. OECD Journal: Economic Studies, 2011(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1787/19952856
Speare, A. (1974). Resıdential Satisfaction as an Intervening Variable in Residential Mobility, Demography, 11 (2).
Tekeli, İ. (2006). Yerleşme yapıları ve göç araştırmaları, in değişen mekân, Dost Kitabevi, 68-83.
TÜİK, (2007-2010-2014-2018). Bölgesel İstatistikler Veri Seti. https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/bolgeselistatistik/ June, 2019.
Voight, A., Giraldo-García, R., & Shinn, M. (2020). The effects of Residential Mobility on the Education Outcomes of Urban Middle School Students and the Moderating Potential of Civic Engagement. Urban Education, 55(4), 570-591. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085917721956
Wang, R., Walter, R., Arafat, A. & Song, J. (2018). Understanding the Role of Life Events on Residential Mobility for Low- İncome, Subsidised Households, Urban Studies, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098018771795
Wang, Y., & Wai Li, L. M. (2020). Does Your Trust in Strangers or Close Acquaintances Promote Better Health? Societal Residential Mobility Matters. The Journal of Social Psychology, 160(4), 416-427. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2019.1658569
Wang, F., & Wang, D. (2020). Changes in Residential Satisfaction After Home Relocation: A Longitudinal Study in Beijing, China. Urban Studies, 57(3), 583-601. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098019866378
Warner, C., & Sharp, G. (2016). The Short-and Long-Term Effects of Life Events on Residential Mobility. Advances in Life Course Research, 27, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2015.09.002
Wulff, M., Champion, A. & Lobo, M. (20109. Household Diversity and Migration in Mid-Life: Understanding Residential Mobility among 45–64 Year Olds in Melbourne, Population Space Place, 16, 307-321. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.553
Yakubu, I., & Spocter, M. (2020). To Move Against the Odds: A Portrait of Socio-spiritual Underpinnings of Residential Mobility Decisions in Pro-poor Housing Systems of Tamale, Ghana. Cities, 105, 102698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.102698
Yasak, Ü. (2014). Türkiye’de Kent İçi İkametgâh Hareketliliğine Bir Örnek: Uşak Kenti, Ankara University Institute of Social Sciences, Ph.Doc.Thesis, Ankara.
Copyright (c) 2020 TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following:
1. Authors retain the rights to their work and give in to the journal the right of first publication of the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License - Attribution that allows others to share the work indicating the authorship and the initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors can adhere to other agreements of non-exclusive license for the distribution of the published version of the work (ex. To deposit it in an institutional repository or to publish it in a monography), provided to indicate that the document was first published in this journal.
3. Authors can distribute their work online (ex. In institutional repositories or in their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and it can increase the quotations of the published work (See The Effect of Open Access)