Causes of residential mobility and Turkey practice

Keywords: Residential mobility, Urban growth, Urban geography, Satisfaction, Trabzon / Ortahisar


Residential mobility is an economic and social recovery process that determines urban growth and regional development. The urban population relocates due to the events in their lives or their dissatisfaction with the conditions. Such individual movements play a role in the construction of urban geography. The aim of the present study was to discuss the factors that affect the residential mobility in Ortahisar district in Trabzon, Turkey. To determine the mobility, a survey was conducted with 445 individuals in 11 neighborhoods with different socio-demographic, economic and physical attributes in Trabzon urban center. The survey findings were analyzed based on a) the analysis of the socio-demographic structure of households, b) evaluation of the residential buildings, c) the analysis of historical mobility, and d) the assessments of causality in mobility. In the study, the causal factors were analyzed based on the life cycle, life course and satisfaction approaches and mobility classification available in the literature, and the study findings were analyzed with descriptive statistics. It was determined that residential ownership, the structure of the household members, and proximity to the workplace factors were effective on residential mobility in Trabzon.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Seda Özlü, KTÜ- Karadeniz Technical University

She was awarded bachelor's and master's degrees in Urban and Regional Planning from the Karadeniz Technical University (Turkey). She completed her thesis titled "Rural Settlement Action Plan Creation Process: Trabzon / Salacik Village Experience" in 2014. The doctoral thesis (continuing) of the author, who started her doctorate education in the same department in 2014, is about the residential mobility. She is a research assistant in Urban and Regional Planning Department at KTU since 2012. Her research interests are focused participatory planning, rural area planning, development of urban geography, housing and residential mobility.

Dilek Beyazli, Architecture/Urban and Regional Planning, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon

Born in 1977 in Istanbul. She graduated from Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Architecture in 1997. She completed his master's degree in 2000 and doctorate in 2005. In 2006, Dr. was appointed to the positions of Assistant Professor and in 2008 to Assistant Professors. She received the title of Associate Professor in 2012 and Professor in 2017. She continues her academic life in KTÜ Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning. She has completed a doctorate and 9 graduate studies under her consultancy and teaches undergraduate and graduate programs. She has urban design projects, architectural implementation projects, master plan experiences for public institutions and organizations. She has been appointed as Environmental Problems Application and Research Center, KTÜ Zero Waste Coordinator and KTÜ Master Plan Academic Coordinator, and is currently the Vice Dean of the Faculty of Architecture and Head of the City and Regional Planning Department.


Alkay, E. (2011). The Residential Mobility Pattern in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area, Housing Studies, 26 (4), 521–539.

Alkay, E. (2011b). In Depth Analysis of the Home to Work Travel Pattern in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area, 51th European Congress of the Regional Science Association International 30 August – 3 September 2011, Barcelona, Spain.

Bach, R. L. & Smith, J. (1977). Community Satisfaction, Expectations of Moving and Migration. Demography, 14(2), 147-167.

Baker, E. (2003). Public Housing Tenant Relocation: Residental Mobility, Satisfaction and the Development of A Tenant’s Spatial Decision Support System, Ph.Doc.Thesis, The Adelaide University Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, Adelaide, Australia.

Brazil, N., & Clark, W. A. (2019). Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Inequality During the Transition to Adulthood. Urban Geography, 40(7), 938-963.

Basolo, V. & Yerena, A. (2017). Residential Mobility of Low-income, Subsidized Households: A Synthesis of Explanatory Frameworks. Housing Studies, 32(6), 841-862.

Boehm, T. P., Herzog Jr, H. W. & Schlottmann, A. M. (1991). Intra-urban Mobility, Migration and Tenure Choice. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 59-68.

Böheim, R., & Taylor, M. (1999). Residential mobility, housing tenure and the labour market in Britain. Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex.

Brown, L. A. & Holmes, J., (1971). “Intraurban Migrant Lifelines: A Spatial View”, Demography, 8 (1), 103-122.

Brown, L. & Moore, E. (1970). The İntra-Urban Migration Process: A Perspective. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 52 (1), 1-13.

Cadwallader, M. (1992). Migration and residential mobility: macro and mcro approaches. Univ of Wisconsin Press.

Chevan, A. (1971). Family Growth, Household Density and Moving. Demography, 8(4), 451-458.

Clark, W. A. (1982). Recent Research on Migration and Mobility: A Review and İnterpretation. Progress in Planning, 18, 1-56.

Clark, W. A. V. (2007). Race, Class and Place, Evaluating Mobility Outcomes for African Americans, Urban Affairs Review, 42 (3), 295-314.

Clark, W. A. V. (2009). Changing Residential Preferences across Income, Education and Age. Findings from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality, Urban Affairs Review, 44 (3), 334-355

Clark, W. A. (2013). Life Course Events and Residential Change: Unpacking Age Effects on the Probability of Moving. Journal of Population Research, 30(4), 319-334.

Clark, W. A. V. (2017). Residential Mobility in Context: Interpreting Behavior in the Housing Market, Revista de Sociologia, 102 (4), 575-605.

Clark, W. A. V., Deurloo, M. C. & Dieleman, F. M. (2006). Residential Mobility and Neighbourhood Outcomes, Housing Studies, 21, (3), 323–342.

Clark, W. A., and Mulder, C. H. (2000). Leaving Home and Entering the Housing Market. Environment and Planning A, 32(9), 1657-1671.

Clark, W. A., & Withers, S. D. (2007). Family Migration and Mobility Sequences in the United States: Spatial Mobility in the Context of the Life Course. Demographic Research, 17, 591-622.

Clark, W.A.V. & Drever, A., (2000). “Residential Mobility in a Constrained Housing Market: Implications for Ethnic Populations in Germany”, Environment and Planning A, 32 (5), 833 – 846.

Clark, W.A.V. & Huang, Y. (2003). The Life Course and Residential Mobility in British Housing Markets, Environment and Planning A, 35 (2), 323 – 339.

Clark, W. A. V. & Huang, Y. (2004). Linking Migration and Mobility: Individual and Contextual Effects in British Housing Markets. Regional Studies, 38 (6), 617-628.

Clark, W.A.V. & Onaka, J. L., (1983). Life Cycle and Housing Adjustment as Explanations of Residential Mobility, Urban Studies, 20 (1), 47-57.

Clark, W.A.V., Deurloo, M.C. & Dieleman, F.M. (1984). Housing Consumption and Residential Mobility. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 74(1), 29-43.

Clark, W.A.V. & Dieleman, F.M. (1996). Households and housing: choice and outcomes, in the housing market. New Brunswick, N.J.: Center For Urban Policy Research.

Coulter, R. & Ham, M. (2013). Following People through Time: An Analysis of Individual Residential Mobility Biographies, Housing Studies, 28 (7), 1037-1055.

Coulton, C., Thedos, B. & Turner, M. A. (2012). Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Change: Real Neighborhoods Under the Microscope, Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 14 (3), 55-90

Dieleman, F. M. (2001). Modelling Residential Mobility; A Review of Recent Trends in Research, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 16, 249–265.

Duncan, G. J., & Newman, S. J. (2007). Expected and Actual Residential Mobility. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 42(2), 174-186.

Earhart, C.C. & Weber, M.J. (1996). Attachment to Home: A Contributing Factor to Models of Residential Mobility Intentions, Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 24 (4), 422-437.

Eceral, T. & Uğurlar, A. 2017. Hanehalkı Konut Hareketliliğini Etkileyen Faktörler: Ankara Örneği, Journal of Planning, 27 (3), 347-361. doi: 10.14744/planlama.2017.83007

Elder, G. H., Johnson, M. K., & Crosnoe, R. (2003). The emergence and development of life course theory. In Handbook of the Life Course, 3-19. Springer, Boston, MA.

Fattah, H. A., Salleh, A. G., Badarulzaman, N., & Ali, K. (2015). Factors Affecting Residential Mobility among Households in Penang, Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 170, 516-526.

Feijten, P. & Van Ham, M., (2009). Neighbourhood Change... Reason to Leave?. Urban Studies, 46(10), 2103–2122.

Gaglione, F., Gargiulo, C., & Zucaro, F. (2019). Elders’ Quality of Life. A Method to Optimize Pedestrian Accessibility to Urban Services. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 12(3), 295-312.

Geist, C. & Mcmanus, P. A. (2008). Geographical Mobility over the Life-Course: Motivations and Implications, Population Space Place, 14, 283-303.

Van Gent, W., Das, M., & Musterd, S. (2019). Sociocultural, Economic and Ethnic Homogeneity in Residential Mobility and Spatial Sorting among Couples. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 51(4), 891-912.

Greenlee, A. J. (2019). Assessing the Intersection of Neighborhood Change and Residential MobilityP for the Chicago Metropolitan Area (2006–2015). Housing Policy Debate, 29(1), 186-212.

Haque, M. B., Choudhury, C., Hess, S., & dit Sourd, R. C. (2019). Modelling Residential Mobility Decision and Its Impact on Car Ownership and Travel Mode. Travel Behaviour and Society, 17, 104-119.

Ham, M. V. & Clark, W. (2009). Neighbourhood Mobility Context: Household Moves and Changing Neighbourhoods in the Netherlands, Environment and Planning A, 41(6), 1442 – 1459.

Hanushek, E.A. & Quigley, J.M. (1978). An Explicit Model of Intra-Metropolitan Mobility, Land Economics, 54 (4), 411-429.

Huang, Y. & Deng, F. F. (2006). Residential Mobility in Chinese Cities: A Longitudinal Analysis, Housing Studies, 21 (5), 625–652.

Jones, A., & Dantzler, P. (2020). Neighborhood Perceptions and Residential Mobility. Urban Studies, 0042098020916440.

Kamruzzaman, M., De Vos, J., Currie, G., Giles-Corti, B., & Turrell, G. (2020). Spatial Biases in Residential Mobility: Implications for Travel Behavior Research. Travel Behavior and Society, 18, 15-28.

Kalelioğlu, R. & Özgür, M. (2013). İkametgâh Memnuniyeti Bağlamında Konut Yeri Seçimi and İkametgâh Hareketliliği: Bolu Kenti Örneği, Turkish Journal of Geographical Sciences, 11 (2), 149-168.

Kooiman, N. (2020). Residential Mobility of Couples Around Family Formation in the Netherlands: Stated and Revealed Preferences. Population, Space and Place, e2367.

Kamacı E. (2012). Re-Reading Urbanization Experience of Istanbul; Through Changing Residential Mobility Behaviour of Households, ODTÜ, Ph.Doc.Thesis, Ankara.

Kamacı, E. (2013). Kent-İçi Hareketlilik ve Sosyo-Mekânsal Değişim: 2000 Yılı İstanbul’una Bakış, Artium, 2 (1), 1–15.

Kan, K. (1999). Expected And Unexpected Residential Mobility, Journal of Urban Economics, 45, 72-96.

Kan, K. (2007). Residential Mobility and Social Capital, Journal of Urban Economics, 61(3), 436-457.

Kocatürk, F. & Bölen, F. (2005). Kayseri’de Konut Alanı Yer Seçimi ve Hanehalkı Hareketliliği, ITU / A Architecture, Planning, Design, 4 (2), 17-24

Landale, N.S. & Guest, A.M., (1985). Constraınts, Satısfactıon and Resıdentıal Mobılıty: Speare's Model Reconsıdered, Demography, 22, 2.

Lei, L., & South, S. J. (2020). The Comforts of Home: The Association Between Coresidence with Parents and Young Adults' Residential Mobility and Migration in the United States. Population, Space and Place, e2323.

Lı, S. M. (2003). Housing Tenure and Residential Mobility in Urban China, A Study of Commodity Housing Development in Beijing and Guangzhou, Urban Affairs Review, 510-534.

Li, S. M., & Mao, S. (2019). The Spatial Pattern of Residential Mobility in Guangzhou, China. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 43(5), 963-982.

Li, S. & Sui, Y. (2001). Residential Mobility and Urban Restructuring under Market Transition: A Study of Guangzhou, China. Professional Geographer, 53(2), 219-229.

Liu, Z., Wang, Y., & Tao, R. (2013). Social Capital and Migrant Housing Experiences in Urban China: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis. Housing Studies, 28(8), 1155-1174.

Loikkanen, H. A. (1992). Housing Demand and Tenure Choice: Evidence from Finland. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 7(1), 9-30.

Molin, E., Oppewal, H., & Timmermans, H. (1996). Predicting Consumer Response to New Housing: A Stated Choice Experiment. Netherlands Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 11(3), 297-311.

Morris, T. (2017). Examining the Influence of Major Life Events as Drivers of Residential Mobility and Neighbourhood Transitions, Demographic Research, 36, 1015-1038.

Özgür, M. (2009). İkametgâh Memnuniyeti ve Şehir İçi İkametgâh Hareketliliği, Coğrafi Bilimler Dergisi, 7 (2), 111- 127.

Özyıldırım, S., Önder, Z., & Yavas, A. (2005). Mobility and Optimal Tenure Choice. Journal of Housing Economics, 14(4), 336-354.

Parida, J. K., & Madheswaran, S. (2010). Spatial Heterogeneity and Population Mobility in India. Institute for Social and Economic Change. ISBN 81-7791-190-2

Patel, A., Joseph, G., Killemsetty, N., & Eng, S. (2020). Effects of Residential Mobility and Migration on Standards of Living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A life-Course Approach. PloS One, 15(9), e0239735.

Pickvance, C. G. (1974). Life Cycle, Housing Tenure and Residential Mobility: A Path Analytic Approach. Urban Studies, 11, 171-188.

Rabe, B. & Taylor, M. (2010). Residential Mobility, Quality of Neighbourhood and Life Course Events. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A, 173(3), 531-555.

Ren, H. & Folmer, H. (2017). Determinants of Residential Satisfaction in Urban China: A Multi-Group Structural Equation Analysis. Urban Studies, 54(6), 1407-1425.

Rossi, P. H. (1955). Why Families Move, A study in the social psychology of urban residential mobility. New York: The Free Press.

Saghapour, T., & Moridpour, S. (2019). The Role of Neighbourhoods Accessibility in Residential Mobility. Cities, 87, 1-9.

Sanchez, A. C., & Andrews, D. (2011). Residential Mobility and Public Policy in OECD Countries. OECD Journal: Economic Studies, 2011(1), 1-22.

Speare, A. (1974). Resıdential Satisfaction as an Intervening Variable in Residential Mobility, Demography, 11 (2).

Tekeli, İ. (2006). Yerleşme yapıları ve göç araştırmaları, in değişen mekân, Dost Kitabevi, 68-83.

TÜİK, (2007-2010-2014-2018). Bölgesel İstatistikler Veri Seti. June, 2019.

Voight, A., Giraldo-García, R., & Shinn, M. (2020). The effects of Residential Mobility on the Education Outcomes of Urban Middle School Students and the Moderating Potential of Civic Engagement. Urban Education, 55(4), 570-591.

Wang, R., Walter, R., Arafat, A. & Song, J. (2018). Understanding the Role of Life Events on Residential Mobility for Low- İncome, Subsidised Households, Urban Studies, 1–19.

Wang, Y., & Wai Li, L. M. (2020). Does Your Trust in Strangers or Close Acquaintances Promote Better Health? Societal Residential Mobility Matters. The Journal of Social Psychology, 160(4), 416-427.

Wang, F., & Wang, D. (2020). Changes in Residential Satisfaction After Home Relocation: A Longitudinal Study in Beijing, China. Urban Studies, 57(3), 583-601.

Warner, C., & Sharp, G. (2016). The Short-and Long-Term Effects of Life Events on Residential Mobility. Advances in Life Course Research, 27, 1-15.

Wulff, M., Champion, A. & Lobo, M. (20109. Household Diversity and Migration in Mid-Life: Understanding Residential Mobility among 45–64 Year Olds in Melbourne, Population Space Place, 16, 307-321.

Yakubu, I., & Spocter, M. (2020). To Move Against the Odds: A Portrait of Socio-spiritual Underpinnings of Residential Mobility Decisions in Pro-poor Housing Systems of Tamale, Ghana. Cities, 105, 102698.

Yasak, Ü. (2014). Türkiye’de Kent İçi İkametgâh Hareketliliğine Bir Örnek: Uşak Kenti, Ankara University Institute of Social Sciences, Ph.Doc.Thesis, Ankara.

How to Cite
ÖzlüS., & BeyazliD. (2020). Causes of residential mobility and Turkey practice. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 13(3), 353-374.