Logit and probit models explaining perceived cycling motives, barriers, and biking trip generation in Lahore, Pakistan

  • Izza Anwer University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2986-8930
  • Houshmand Masoumi Center for Technology and Society Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
  • Atif Bilal Aslam Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Asim Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
Keywords: Bicycle, Biking Perception, Sustainable Transport, Urban Mobility, Pakistan


Cycling as an attractive mode of transport is a challenge, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. Previous research on cycling in developing countries is insufficient to answer that how people can be encouraged to bike in different regions and cultures. This research, therefore, directs two research questions based on the perceptions of the people of Lahore. The first research question addresses the perceived motives of everyday biking trip generation and the second question addresses the perceived barriers in biking in the city of Lahore. The data sample of 379 subjects was collected through self-reported questionnaire across different socioeconomic groups. The questionnaire was designed to discuss the motives for biking such as affordability, reliability, and accessibility as well as to identify the barriers such as cultural issues, gender problems and non-availability of infrastructure for biking. Along with descriptive statistics, Multinomial Logistic was used to analyze perceived motives, Binary Logistic for perceived barriers and Ordinal Probit for biking trip generation. The obtained results are very interesting and provide various insights about the perceptions of people regarding biking trip generation, motives, and barriers with various factors involved. The results are beneficial to urban developers, city planners, transport planners, policy makers and other stakeholders.



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Author Biographies

Izza Anwer, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

She is transport engineer and is Assistant Professor in the Department of transportation engineering and management, faculty of Civil engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan. She holds a PhD in the field of Intelligent transport system technologies integrated with transport systems and disasters from Institute for transport studies, University of Leeds, UK. Her research interests include Intelligent transport systems, disasters, community building, urban planning, multi-modal transport planning and engineering and multiple data analysis techniques.

Houshmand Masoumi, Center for Technology and Society Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.

Affiliation 1.

Center for Technology and Society

Technische Universität Berlin, Germany

Affiliation 2. Department of Transport and Supply Chain Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

He is a senior researcher at Center for Technology and Society of Technische Universität Berlin, Germany and visiting Associate Professor at the Department of Transport and Supply Chain Management of University of Johannesburg, South Africa. His research interests include statistical modeling of urban travel behavior, land use – transportation interactions, urban sprawl and travel behavior, and the travel behavior analysis of special demographic and age groups.

Atif Bilal Aslam, Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

He is an assistant Professor in the Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan. He holds PhD in urban development planning from Technical University of Dortmund, Germany. His main scientific interests include urban planning, urban mobility and migration, sustainable development, and resilience.

Muhammad Asim, Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

He is an urban and regional planner, PhD in Urban Engineering, assistant professor at the University of Engineering and Technology in City and Regional Planning Department, where he teaches urban land management, Disaster Management, and Estate Management. His research interest deal with the study of socio-economic disparities in growing regions, vulnerability assessment and climate change adaptation.


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How to Cite
AnwerI., MasoumiH., AslamA., & AsimM. (2021). Logit and probit models explaining perceived cycling motives, barriers, and biking trip generation in Lahore, Pakistan. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 14(3), 433-455. https://doi.org/10.6093/1970-9870/8113