Youth urban mobility behaviours in Tunisian Sahel

  • Aymen Ghédira Higher Institute of Transport and Logistics University of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia
  • Mehdi El Kébir Higher Institute of Transport and Logistics University of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia; Higher School of Economic and Commercial Sciences, University of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia
Keywords: Mobility, Spatial variability, Distance, Time, Cost


In this paper, we analyze a 2019 survey data in order to gain a better understanding of the urban mobility behaviours of Tunisian young people aged from 15 to 29 years old, in the Tunisian Sahel region. For this study, we selected 739 participants, scattered over 40 delegations each with a different structure. We distinguish two age groups: from 15 to 19 years old (31.8%) and 20 to 29 (68.2%). The descriptive analysis was conducted on two spatial scales: The region named also the great Tunisian Sahel (scale 1) formed by three costal governorates (scale 2): Sousse, Monastir, and Mahdia. The variables analysis falls into two main categories: "daily trips volume coupled to the modal choice”, and “the trip trinomial”: Distance, Time, and Costs. Significant differences have been found in mobility practices, not only between social and spatial levels, but also between the youngest of 15-19 years old and those of 20-29 years old, thus emphasizing trends in travel habits as a function of age.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Aymen Ghédira, Higher Institute of Transport and Logistics University of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia

He is an urban transport modeler and planner who holds two PhDs from Grenoble Alps University (Territory Sciences) and University of Sousse (Public Management) and is an AssociateProfessor at the Higher Institute of Transport and Logistics. In addition to teaching urban and regional planning courses, he also teaches courses on sustainable mobility. Since 2010 he has been a visiting professor at the Polytechnic School of the ULB Brussels and gives seminars and training courses in transport management and logistics for international master's students. He is a member, co-founder and coordinator of many territorial development organizations. He is also spokesman for the Tunisian School of Politics (TSoP), the Decentralization Training and Support Center (CFAD) and the Baladyia Seminar of the Robert Bosch Foundation GIZ. As project manager, Ghédira was, between 2018 and 2021 responsible for the integrated urban development program of Sousse in Tunisia, funded by Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), and covering urban planning (1), mobility and transport (2), energy efficiency (3) and GIS (4) areas. In his current position at IRIS Conseil Engineering, he leads urban transport modeling projects in the French context. A large number of his publications deal with public and political decision-making processes related to urban transport and local and regional development with an interdisciplinary and applied perspective.

Mehdi El Kébir, Higher Institute of Transport and Logistics University of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia; Higher School of Economic and Commercial Sciences, University of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia

He holds two research masters degrees. The first degree was obtained from the Higher Institute of Transport and Logistics of the University of Sousse and the second degree from the Higher School of Economics and Commerce of the University of Tunis. El Kébir has a multidisciplinary profile and is currently pursuing a PhD in Transport Studies and Regional Economics. He is interested in the vulnerability issues of mobility behavior and territorial studies. In his role as a temporary university assistant, he teaches tutorials and courses for undergraduate students. During his research career, he published two first papers and participated in half a dozen international symposia and indexed scientific conferences.


Adeel, M. (2018). Travel behaviour variations across urban and rural areas of Pakistan. A national mobility analysis. Tema Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment 83-94.

Akhavan, M. & Vecchio, G. (2018). Mobility and Accessibility of the Ageing Society. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 9-22.

Berrington, A., & Mikolai, J. (2014). Young adults’ license-holding and driving Behavior in the UK. Full Findings. London: RAC Foundation. Retrieved from:

Chaibi, M. & Jebsi K. (2012) Évaluation de la valeur du temps de transport : Le cas de la ville de Sousse, Economic Research Forum Working Papers 690.

Clifton, Kelly J. (2003). Independent mobility among teenagers: Exploration of travel to afterschool activities. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1854: 74-80.

Copperman, R., & C.R. Bhat (2011). An Assessment of the State-of-the-Research of US Children’s Time-Use and Activity-Travel Patterns. Presented at the Second Workshop on Time Use Observatory (TUO 2), March 2010, and published in Time Use Observatory, Chapter 2, 29-52, edited by J.A. Carrasco, S. Jara-Diaz, & M. Munizaga, Gráfica LOM,

Santiago de Chile.

Dalton, M. A., Longacre, M. R., Drake, K.M., Gibson, L., Adachi Mejia, A. M., Swain, K., Xie, H., & Owens, P. (2011). Built environment predictors of active travel to school among rural adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine,

(3), 312–319.

De Paepe, L., De Vos, J., Van Acker, V., & Witlox, F. (2018). Changes in travel behavior during the transition from secondary to higher education: A case study from Ghent, Belgium. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1), 477–498.

El Kébir, M. & Ghédira, A. (2021). Variability of urban mobility traits and practices in the Tunisian Sahel, session 10 - mobilités quotidiennes et systèmes de transport urbains au sud - 3èmes Rencontres Francophones Transports Mobilités 2-3 juin, université Gustave Eiffel, Paris, France.

Emond, C., & Handy, S. (2012). Factors associated with bicycling to high school: Insights from Davis, CA. Journal of Transport Geography, 20, 71–79.

Ghédira, A. (2015). Urban planning and sustainable development in Tunisia: towards a new conception of public conduct of transport and location systems. Ph. D. Thesis. Université Grenoble Alpes (France) ; Université de Sousse (Tunisie); NNT : 2015GREAH036. tel-01870869.

Kamargianni, M., & Polydoropoulou, A. (2011). Exploring teenagers’ travel behavior for school and after-school activities: Implications on safety. In: ICTIS: Multimodal Approach to Sustained Transportation System Development - Information, Technology, Implementation. Proceedings of the 1st Int. Conf. on Transportation Information and Safety, 1896–1904.

Kamargianni, M., Polydoropoulou, A., & Goulias, K. G. (2012). Teenager’s Travel Patterns for School and After-School Activities. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 48, 3635–3650.

Kaufmann, V. (2000). De la mobilité à la motilité. In : Michel Bassand, Vincent Kaufmann, Dominique Joye (dir.), Enjeux de la sociologie urbaine, Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes (collection science, technique et société), Lausanne, 200.

Konrad, K., & Groth, S. (2020). Consistency or contradiction? Mobility- Related Attitudes and Travel Mode Use of the Young ‘New Generation’. Raumforschung und Raumordnung | Spatial Research and Planning, 78(2), 135–151.

Kuhnimhof, T., Buehler, R., Wirtz, M., & Kalinowska, D. (2012). Travel trends among young adults in Germany: Increasing multimodality and declining car use for men. Journal of Transport Geography, 24, 443–450.

Mamdoohi, A. R., Janjani, A. (2016). Modeling metro users' travel behavior in Tehran: frequency of use. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 47-58.

Marzoughi, R. (2011). Teen travel in the Greater Toronto Area: A descriptive analysis of trends from 1986 to 2006 and the policy implications. Transport Policy, 18(4): 623–630.

McCray, T. M., & Mora, S. (2011). Analyzing the activity spaces of low-income teenagers: How do they perceive the spaces where activities are carried out. Journal of Urban Affairs, 33(5): 511–528.

McDonald, N. C. (2006). Exploratory analysis of children's travel patterns. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1977: 1-7.

McDonald, N., & Trowbridge, M. (2009). Does the built environment affect when American teens become drivers? Evidence from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey. Journal of Safety Research, 40 (3), 177-183.

Moeinaddini M., Asadi-Shekari Z., & Zaly Shah M. (2012). The Relationship between Urban Structure and Travel Behaviour: Challenges and Practices. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 5(3), 47-63.

Mohamed, M., & Bromfield, N. F. (2017). Attitudes, driving behavior, and accident involvement among young male drivers in Saudi Arabia. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 47(2017), 59–71.

Porter, G., & Turner, J. (2019). Meeting Young People’s Mobility and Transport Needs: Review and Prospect. Sustainability, 11, n°22 : 6193.

Saidou, H.Y. (2014). Se déplacer à Niamey, mobilité et dynamique urbaine. PhD Thesis, University of Grenoble, France, and University of Abdou Moumouni, Niger.

Skelton, T. (2013). Young Peoples’s Urban Im/Mobilities: Relationality and identity formation. Urban Studies, 50 (3), 467-483.

Soltanzadeh, H., & E. Masoumi, H. (2014). The Determinants of Transportation Mode Choice in the Middle Eastern Cities: the Kerman Case, Iran. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 7(2), 199-222.

Stark, J., Beyer Bartana, I., & Fritz, A. (2015). Examining mobility behaviour among youth- a progress report. Transportation Research Procedia, 11: 481-91.

Tesoriere, G. & Errigo, M. F. (2018). Urban travel behavior determinants in Saudi Arabia. Tema Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment. 31-46.

Thakuriah, P. (Vonu), Tang, L., & Menchu, S. (2009). Young women’s transportation and labor market experiences. Women’s Issues in Transportation, Summary, the next generation of travel statistical analysis, sources, 136 of the 4th International Conference, Volume 2: Technical Papers. Retrieved from:

Turki, F. & Ghédira A. (2022). Carpooling phenomena in Tunisia : General characteristics and gender user’s behavior analysis, 14th International conference of Logistics and Supply Chain Management LOGISTIQUA 2022 - May 25 -27, National School of Business and Management (ENCGJ), A. Chouaib Doukkali University, ELJADIDA, MOROCCO.

Voorhees, C. C., Yan, A. F., Clifton, K. J., & Wang, M. Q. (2011). Neighborhood environment, self-efficacy, and physical activity in urban adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 35(6): 674-688.

Woldeamanuel, M. (2016). Younger teens’ mode choice for school trips: Do parents’ attitudes toward safety and traffic conditions along the school route matter? International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 10(2), 147–155.

How to Cite
GhédiraA., & El KébirM. (2022). Youth urban mobility behaviours in Tunisian Sahel. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 15(2), 249-261.