Enhancing driver visibility at night: an advanced glass-powder paint technology approach

Keywords: Night driving, Visibility, Quantum optical-flow, Glass-powder paint technology, Multinomial logistics


Driving in low visibility regions, especially at night along a transportation facility, can be particularly dangerous. Related issues include reduced illumination leading to reducing visibility and the objects fading away into obscure darkness. In such situations, albeit some drivers suffer from deficiency (including nearsightedness and cataracts), poor visibility due to road markings becoming blur could result in several problems, including damaged night vision. This study aims at addressing these issues by providing alternative measures to improve driver visibility at night using innovative glass-powder paint technology (GPPT). An introduced driveway section located at Eastern Cape Province-South Africa is selected as reference application to compare the proposed road marking paint in the current research against the conventional one. This was conducted via a developed, grouped multinomial logistics and non-parametric, quantitative analysis model in quantum flow theory. In this study, results revealed that based on a 95% confidence level assumed equivalent to 0.05 significance level, the null hypothesis was rejected, proving that driving behaviour at night on the test section is significantly improved with the introduction of the innovative GPPT. Hence, the enhanced illumination index obtained and reduction in the blur level on the road markings indicate improved glare and night illumination.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Samuel Abejide, Walter Sisulu University

Samuel Olugbenga Abejide is a Doctor of Civil Engineering Department at the Walter Sisulu University Eastern Cape and is less than 35 years of age. He is a Master's Degree graduate from Ahmadu Bello University in Structural Engineering. His Master's thesis focused on Mechanics of Materials in Bridges and Building Structures. This study pioneered his interest in the Mechanics of Highway structures. Following the completion of his Master's degree, Samuel worked as an Assistant Lecturer of Mechanics of Structures in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, in the Department of Civil Engineering in Nigeria where he is recognised as a Cooperate member of the Nigerian Society of Engineers. He joined the Central University of Technology as a Doctoral Student in 2016. And completed his research in "Stress Intensity Failure Rate Propagators of Flexible Pavement using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics" in 2020. Samuel is also actively involved in Sustainable Roads and Transportation (SRT) Research Group: University of Kwa-Zulu Natal.

Mohamed Mostafa, University of Kwa-Zulu natal

My main interest is sustainable roads with an emphasis on non-conventional materials for pavement. I have published more than 60 manuscripts. My h-index is 5, and my RG of 13.59. My research projects are summarised in the following diagram.

Prof Mostafa's primary area of expertise lies in civil engineering with interests in sustainable transportation. He is very interested in applications related to environmental aspects and characterisation of flexible pavement materials, particularly bituminous materials. His background and interests centre primarily on the experimental and analytical investigation of fundamental materials behaviour of asphalt and granular materials for pavements. His primary focus is promoting sustainability, with research projects on the use of recycled, waste, by-product, and secondary materials in the transportation infrastructure, together with adopting environmentally driven research in pavement construction, management and maintenance. Other research includes applications of Nanomaterials and IT in developing countries transportation systems.

Abdulhakim Adeoye Shittu, Federal University Wukari, Wukari

B.Eng.: Civil Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2002-2008). M.Sc.: Civil Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2015). M.Sc.: Offshore and Ocean Technology with Pipeline Engineering, Cranfield University, UK (2011-2012). PhD: Energy and Power, School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, UK (2017-2020). Lecturer: Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Federal University Wukari, Nigeria (2015-Till Date). His research interests include optimisation of engineered structures, design of bridges, reliability-based design of advanced structures, fracture mechanics and structural dynamics modelling.


Abejide, O. S., Adedeji, J. A., & Mostafa Hassan, M. (2018). Intelligent transportation system as an effective remedy to improve the public transportation in South Africa. https://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/69576

Agrawal, M. (2008). Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and Quantum Optics (QED). In Fundamental Physics in Nano-Structured Materials and Devices. Stanford University. http://www.stanford.edu/~mukul/tutorials

Baker, R. G. V. (1999). On the quantum mechanics of optic flow and its application to driving in uncertain environments. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2(1), 27–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-8478(99)00005-4

Bartmann, A., Spijkers, W., & Hess, M. (1991). Street environment, driving speed and field of version. In A. G. Gale, I. D. Brown, C. M. Haslegrave, I. Moorhead, & S. P. Taylor (Eds.), Vision in Vehicles III (pp. 381–389). Northwestern University.

CM, M., & EL, F. (2008). Safety effects of reducing freeway illumination for energy conservation. Accident; Analysis and Prevention, 40(5), 1773–1780. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AAP.2008.06.018

Dingus, T. A., Guo, F., Lee, S., Antin, J. F., Perez, M., Buchanan-King, M., & Hankey, J. (2016). Driver crash risk factors and prevalence evaluation using naturalistic driving data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(10), 2636–2641. https://doi.org/10.1073/PNAS.1513271113

DN, L. (1980). The optic flow field: the foundation of vision. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 290(1038), 169–179. https://doi.org/10.1098/RSTB.1980.0089

Ezell, S. (2010). Explaining International IT Application Leadership: Intelligent Transport Systems.

Florida Department of Transportation. (2007). Median Handbook.

Gibson, J. (1966). The senses considered as a perceptual system.

Gillwald, A., Moyo, M., & Stork, C. (2012). Understanding what is happening in ICT in South Africa: a supply- and demand-side analysis of the ICT sector.

Hoel, L. A., Garber, N. J., & Sadek, A. W. (2008). Transportation infrastructure engineering : a multi-modal integration. 674.

Hounsell, N. B., Shrestha, B. P., Piao, J., & McDonald, M. (2009). Review of urban traffic management and the impacts of new vehicle technologies. IET Intelligent Transport Systems, 3(4), 419–428. https://doi.org/10.1049/IET-ITS.2009.0046

Hu, X., Chiu, Y.-C., & Shelton, J. (2016). Development of a behaviorally induced system optimal travel demand management system. Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1080/15472450.2016.1171151, 21(1), 12–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/15472450.2016.1171151

Jacob, B., & Violette, E. (2012). Vehicle Trajectory Analysis: An Advanced Tool for Road Safety. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 48, 1805–1814. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SBSPRO.2012.06.1155

Kinderyte‐Poškiene, J., & Sokolovskij, E. (2010). Traffic control elements influence on accidents, mobility and the environment. Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 23(1), 55–58. https://doi.org/10.3846/1648-4142.2008.23.55-58

Miura, T. (1987). Behavior Oriented Vision: Functional Field of View and Processing Resources. Eye Movements from Physiology to Cognition, 563–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-70113-8.50080-1

NHTSA. (2008). US Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Organisation. https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/811059

Nunes, A., Galvão, T., & Cunha, J. (2014). Urban Public Transport Service Co-creation: Leveraging Passenger's Knowledge to Enhance Travel 121 Experience. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, 111. OECD (2010) Cities and Green Growth: Issues Paper for the 3rd Annual Meeting of the OECD Urban Roundtable of Mayors and Ministers, 25 May, 2010, 577–585.

Pincus, P. (2014). Statistics 1. T-Test Review. Agriculture innovation program. USAID et al. https://epakag.ucdavis.edu/media/vocational/man-stats-t-test.pdf

Rea, M., Bullough, J., & Zhou, Y. (2010). A method for assessing the visibility benefits of roadway lighting: Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1177/1477153509360855, 42(2), 215–241. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153509360855

RW, M., & HE, R. (1983). Optic-flow and cognitive factors in time-to-collision estimates. Perception, 12(4), 417–423. https://doi.org/10.1068/P120417

Sheu, J.-B. (2013). Characterisation of driver behaviour during car following using quantum optical flow theory. Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1080/18128602.2011.572571, 9(3), 269–298. https://doi.org/10.1080/18128602.2011.572571

WHO. (2005). World report on road traffic injury prevention: summary. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/world-report-on-road-traffic-injury-prevention

Yin, K. (2014). Case Study Research Design and Methods. SAGE Publications.

How to Cite
AbejideS., MostafaM., & ShittuA. (2022). Enhancing driver visibility at night: an advanced glass-powder paint technology approach. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 181-194. https://doi.org/10.6093/1970-9870/8656
Living and Walking in Cities 2021