Urbanization and Urban design in sustainable development. Case study of the ToLich River regions in Hanoi

Main Article Content

Xuan Son Do
David Edgar Cowan Thomas


In Vietnam, as elsewhere in the world, villages, towns and small cities of noticeable interest (in relation to culture, heritage, history or ecology) on the outskirts of larger cities are suffering serious damage from large-scale rapid urbanization. Development principles that merge historical and cultural heritage with dynamic trade and economy, while preserving an urban identity, with affirmative internal resources and ecological initiatives, guarantee a stable environment towards sustainable urban development.

This research refers to urban design and renovation and landscape design orientated towards sustainable development of small towns along the To Lich River, Hanoi, Vietnam. Focusing on residential concentrations rich in culture, history and traditional trades and crafts, this paper determines and develops the tools to identify characteristic landscapes of urban residential clusters situated along rivers.

The proposal is of an open dynamic sustainable urban trinodal concept that maintains and promotes existing values and strengths for the river landscape. The model consists of Society (Culture-Heritage-History), Economy (Trade-Craft-Agriculture) and Ecology (Environment-Habitation). These shape the identity of the regional landscape (those on each side of the ToLich River) and are also applicable for sustainable developments a long other rivers or territories.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
DoX., & Cowan ThomasD. (2017). Urbanization and Urban design in sustainable development. Case study of the ToLich River regions in Hanoi. UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & Environmental Design, 2(2), 37-52. https://doi.org/10.6092/2531-9906/5256


Barton, H. (ed.) (2000). Conflicting perceptions of neighborhood: In Sustainable Communities. London, UK: Earthscan.

Berque, A (dir.), Conan, M, Donadieu, P, Lassu. B, & Roger. A. (1994). Cinq propositions pour une théorie du paysage, Pays/Paysage, Champ Vallon, p.49.

Brunet, R. (2001). Géographie universelle, Mondes nouveaux, Paris, Hachette, (1990). Dans « Le déchiffrement de monde, théorie et pratique de la géographie », Brunet, R. et Dolllfus. O. Lavoisier S.A.S, 402.

Burklin. Turklin, T. & Peterek, M. (2007), Basics Morphologie urbaine, BIRKHÄUSER, 73.

Carley, M. & Kirk, K. (1998). Sustainable by 2020? A Strategic Approach to Urban Regeneration for Britain's Cities. Policy: Bristol.

Clement, P. (2010), Revue : Leçon tirée de Hanoï, Hanoï – Le cercle de métamorphose, Édition scientifique technique.

Collot, M. (1997), Les Enjeux du paysage, par Franceschi. C, Du mot paysage et de ses équivalents, Département de Littérature Française et Littérature comparée de l’Université de Paris X Nanterre, éditions OUSIA, p.6.

Cueco, H. (1995), Approches du concept de paysage, dans « La théorie du paysage en France (1974-1994) », Sous la direction d’Alain Roger, Les classiques de Champ Vallon, 455, p.180.

Dempsey, N. Bramley. G. Power, S. & Brown, C. (2009), The social dimension of sustainable development: Defining urban social sustainability. Sustainable Development: University of Technology: Sydney.

Du Plessis, C. (2000). Cities and sustainability: sustaining our cultural heritage. In Cities and Sustainability: Sustaining Our Cultural Heritage, Conference Proceedings. Brandon, P. Lombardi, P. & Perera, S. (eds.). Sri Lanka: Kandalama.

Giddings, B. Hopwood, B. & O'Brien, G. (2002). Environment, economy and society: fitting them together into sustainable development. Sustainable Development, 10, 187–196.

Hopwood, B. Mellor, M. & O'Brien. G. (2005). Sustainable Development: mapping different approaches. Sustainable Development, 13, 38–52.


Jenks, M. & Dempsey, N. (eds). (2005). Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities. Oxford, UK: Architectural.

Keivani, R. (2009). A review of the main challenges to urban sustainability. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 1, 15-16

Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 211, p.46-49.

Malkina-Pykh, I. G. (2002). Integrated assessment models and response function models: pros and cons for sustainable development indices design. Ecological Indicators, 2, 93-108.

Moccia, F.D. & Sgobbo, A. (2013). La polarizzazione metropolitana. L'evoluzione della rete della grande distribuzione verso un sistema policentrico sostenibile. Napoli, IT: Liguori.

Mostafa, S. Badarulzaman, N. & Jaafar, M. (2011). City Development Strategies (CDS) and Sustainable Urbanization in Developing World. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 623 – 631. Doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.068

Paulet, J-P. (2002). Les représentations mentales en géographie, Paris, Anthropos, coll. Géographie, 152, p.8.

Saha, D. & Paterson, R. G. (2008). Local Government Efforts to Promote the “Three Es” of Sustainable Development Survey in Medium to Large Cities in the United States. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 21-37.

Sgobbo, A. (2016). Recycling, waste management and urban vegetable gardens. WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, 202, 61-72. doi:10.2495/WM160071

Shen, L-Y. Ochoa, J. J. Shah, M. N, & Zhang, X. (2011), The application of urban sustainability indicators -A comparison between various practices. Habitat International, 35,17-29.

STE 176 –Convention Européenne du paysage, Florence. (2000), Chapitre II – Mesures nationales, Article 5.

USGS EROS Center. (2015), Urban Dynamics Research Program: Analysis of Land Use Change in Urban Environments, USA, http://landcover.usgs.gov/

Wall, Ed. et Waterman, T. (2011), Les essentielles architectures du paysage, Design urbain, Pyramide NTCV, p.17.

Whitehead, M. (2003). (Re)Analyzing the Sustainable City: Nature, Urbanization and the Regulation of Socio-environmental Relations in the UK. Urban Studies, 40, 1183–1206.

Williams, K. Burton, E. & Jenks, M. (eds). (2000), Achieving Sustainable Urban Form. London, UK: Spon.

World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). (1987), Our Common Future. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Yokohari, M, Tahara. Shinichi. Kurita, H. & Terada, T. (2011), A Quantitative Assessment of Agricultural Production from Allotment Gardens. Journal of the Japanese Institute of Lanscape Architecture, 74(5), 685-688.