European cities and e-scooters at the crossroad

  • Gennaro Angiello Systemica, Bruxelles, Belgium
Keywords: E-scooter, Paris, Ban, Regulation, European cities, Micro mobility


Starting from the relationship between urban planning and mobility management, TeMA has gradually
expanded the view of the covered topics, always following a rigorous scientific in-depth analysis. This section
of the Journal, Review Notes, is the expression of a continuous updating of emerging topics concerning
relationships among urban planning, mobility and environment, through a collection of short scientific
papers. The Review Notes are made of four parts. Each section examines a specific aspect of the broader
information storage within the main interests of TeMA Journal. In particular, the Urban Practices section
aims at producing, analyzing and reporting data on recent and relevant policies in the urban domain.
The present note analyses the complex relationships between European cities and electric scooters and
reports on the case study of Paris where, in a recent non-binding referendum, Parisians opted
overwhelmingly to ban e-scooters in the French capital. In doing so, the note tracks the roots of the current
e-scooters expansion and reports on the massive deployment of 500,000 free-floating electric vehicles on
the European streets (and sidewalks) operated by few private mobility companies in less than three years.
After this, the note provides a focus on Paris, the city that pioneered electric scooters in Europe and that
will likely take them off the street as of September 2023. The note concludes that the relationship between
e-scooters and European cities is at a turning point and provides some suggestions to move forward.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Gennaro Angiello, Systemica, Bruxelles, Belgium

Gennaro Angiello is a Senior IT Consultant, currently auditing for the European Commission, where he leads the analysis and design of information technologies aimed at supporting data-driven policymaking in the domain of environment, public health and food safety. Prior to moving to the private sector, Gennaro has worked as researcher at the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering of the University of Naples Federico II and has been Visiting Fellow at the Department of Human Geography of the Complutense University of Madrid.


ADAME - Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maltrise de l’Energie(2019). Uses and users of free-floating electric scooters in France. Available at: Last accessed: April 2023.

Angelidou, M. (2017). Smart city planning and development shortcomings. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 10(1), 77-94.

Angiello, G. (2020). Toward greener and pandemic-proof cities: Italian cities policy responses to Covid-19 pandemic. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 13(2), 271-280.

Angiello, G. (2021). Toward greener and pandemic-proof cities: EU cities policy responses to Covid-19 outbreak. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 13(3), 471-477.

Angiello, G. (2022a). Planning for sustainable urban mobility in Southern Europe: insights from Rome and Madrid. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 15(2), 335-340.

AURIF, 2019. Chiffres-clés de la Region Ile-de-France 2019. Available at : Last accessed: April 2023.

Battarra, R., Zucaro, F., & Tremiterra, M. R. (2018). Smart mobility and elderly people. Can ICT make the city more accessible for everybody?. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, Special Issue2.2018 , 23-42.

Borkowski, P., Jażdżewska-Gutta, M., & Szmelter-Jarosz, A. (2021). Lockdowned: Everyday mobility changes in response to COVID-19. Journal of Transport Geography, 90, 102906.

Carpentieri G., Guida C., Fevola O., & Sgambati S. (2020). The Covid-19 pandemic from the elderly perspective in urban areas: An evaluation of urban green areas in 10 European capitals. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 13(3), 389-408.

Carpentieri G., Guida C., & Sgambati S. (2023). Textometric analysis on the ongoing academic spatial planning debate. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, (1), 197-223.

Christoforou, Z., de Bortoli, A., Gioldasis, C., & Seidowsky, R. (2021). Who is using e-scooters and how? Evidence from Paris. Transportation research part D: transport and environment, 92, 102708.

Cirianni, F., Monterosso, C., Panuccio, P., & Rindone, C. (2018). A review methodology of sustainable urban mobility plans: Objectives and actions to promote cycling and pedestrian mobility. In: Bisello, A., Vettorato, D., Laconte, P., Costa, S. (eds) Smart and Sustainable Planning for Cities and Regions. SSPCR 2017. Springer, Cham.

Coelho, A., Feito, P., Corominas, L., Sánchez-Soler, J. F., Pérez-Prieto, D., Martínez-Diaz, S., ... & Monllau, J. C. (2021). Electric scooter-related injuries: a new epidemic in orthopedics. Journal of clinical medicine, 10(15), 3283.

Dias, G., Arsenio, E., & Ribeiro, P. (2021). The role of shared e-scooter systems in urban sustainability and resilience during the COVID-19 mobility restrictions. Sustainability, 13(13), 7084.

DRIEA (2013). Enquête Globale Transport - La Ville de Paris. Availabe at: Last accessed: April 2023.

EIP - Earth Policy Institute (20213). Bike-sharing programs hit the streets in over 500 cities worldwide. Available at: Last accessed: April 2023.

EITUM - European Institute of Innovation and Technology Urban Mobility (2023). The progress of shared micro mobility across Europe. Available at: Last accessed: April 2023.

EY - Ernst & Young (2022). Micromobility: moving cities into a sustainable future. Available at : Last accessed: April 2023.

Forbes (2023). Paris Votes To Ban E-Scooter Sharing Services. Available at: Last accessed: April 2023.

Gioldasis, Christos, Zoi Christoforou, and Régine Seidowsky (2021). Risk-taking behaviors of e-scooter users: A survey in Paris. Accident Analysis & Prevention 163 (2021): 106427.

Gössling, S. (2020). Integrating e-scooters in urban transportation: Problems, policies, and the prospect of system change. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 79, 102230.

Guida, C., Carpentieri, G., & Masoumi, H. (2022). Measuring spatial accessibility to urban services for older adults: an application to healthcare facilities in Milan. European transport research review, 14(1), 23.

Guida, C., Carpentieri, G., & Zacharias, J. (2022). A Smart Approach for Integrated Land-Use and Transport Planning—An Application to the Naples Metro Station Areas. In Computational Science and Its Applications–ICCSA 2022 Workshops: Malaga, Spain, July 4–7, 2022, Proceedings, Part VI (pp. 395-409). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Hosseinzadeh, A., Algomaiah, M., Kluger, R., & Li, Z. (2021). E-scooters and sustainability: Investigating the relationship between the density of E-scooter trips and characteristics of sustainable urban development. Sustainable cities and society, 66, 102624.

Latinopoulos, Charilaos, Agathe Patrier, and Aruna Sivakumar (2021). Planning for e-scooter use in metropolitan cities: A case study for Paris. Transportation research part D: transport and environment 100 (2021): 103037.

Li, A., Zhao, P., Liu, X., Mansourian, A., Axhausen, K. W., & Qu, X. (2022). Comprehensive comparison of e-scooter sharing mobility: Evidence from 30 European cities. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 105, 103229.

Lime (2019). More major European Cities pass 1 million e-scooter ride milestone. Available online: Last accessed : April 2023.

Lime (2020). Lime for a sustainable Paris. Available at : Last accessed: April 2020.

Mátrai, T., & Tóth, J. (2016). Comparative assessment of public bike sharing systems. Transportation research procedia, 14, 2344-2351.

Micromobility for Europe (2023). Press statement following vote in Paris against continuation of shared e-scooters. Available at: Last accessed: April 2023.

Milakis, D., Gedhardt, L., Ehebrecht, D., & Lenz, B. (2020). Is micro-mobility sustainable? An overview of implications for accessibility, air pollution, safety, physical activity and subjective wellbeing. Handbook of sustainable transport, 180-189.

Mozos-Blanco, M. Á., Pozo-Menéndez, E., Arce-Ruiz, R., & Baucells-Aletà, N. (2018). The way to sustainable mobility. A comparative analysis of sustainable mobility plans in Spain. Transport policy, 72, 45-54.

Orozco-Fontalvo, M., Llerena, L., & Cantillo, V. (2022). Dockless electric scooters: A review of a growing micromobility mode. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 2022(4), 1-17.

O’ Brien, O. (2022). Mapped: Some of the biggest e-scooter networks across Europe. Available at : Last accessed: April 2023.

Pisano, C. (2020). Strategies for post-COVID cities: An insight to Paris En Commun and Milano 2020. Sustainability, 12(15), 5883.

Riggs, W., Kawashima, M., & Batstone, D. (2021). Exploring best practice for municipal e-scooter policy in the United States. Transportation research part A: policy and practice, 151, 18-27.

Stehlin, J., Hodson, M., & McMeekin, A. (2020). Platform mobilities and the production of urban space: Toward a typology of platformization trajectories. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 52(7), 1250-1268.

The Guardian (2023a). E-scooters: a tale of two cities as London and Paris plot different paths. Availabe at: Last accessed: April 2023.

The Guardian (2023b). Lime criticised for offering free rides before Paris e-scooter referendum. Available at: Last accessed: April 2023.

Vinayaga-Sureshkanth, N., Wijewickrama, R., Maiti, A., & Jadliwala, M. (2022). An investigative study on the privacy implications of mobile e-scooter rental apps. In Proceedings of the 15th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (pp. 125-139).

Wang, K., Qian, X., Fitch, D. T., Lee, Y., Malik, J., & Circella, G. (2023). What travel modes do shared e-scooters displace? A review of recent research findings. Transport Reviews, 43(1), 5-31.

WorldAtlas (2018). The World’s Most Densely Populated Cities. Available at: Last accessed: April 2023.

Zagorskas, J., & Burinskienė, M. (2019). Challenges caused by increased use of e-powered personal mobility vehicles in European cities. Sustainability, 12(1), 273.

Zuniga-Garcia, N., Tec, M., Scott, J. G., & Machemehl, R. B. (2022). Evaluation of e-scooters as transit last-mile solution. Transportation research part C: emerging technologies, 139, 103660.

How to Cite
AngielloG. (2023). European cities and e-scooters at the crossroad. TeMA - Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 16(1), 233-237.